What Is Cryptocurrency? - dummies

The Exhaustive EOS FAQ

The Exhaustive EOS FAQ

With the large number of new readers coming to this sub we need to make information easy to access so those readers can make informed decisions. We all know there is an unusually large amount of Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD) surrounding EOS. Frankly, when clear evidence is provided it’s not that difficult to see EOS for the extremely valuable project it is. This post hopes to begin to put an end to all the misinformation by doing the following:  
  • Giving a clear and concise answer to the most frequently asked questions in regards to EOS.
  • Giving a more in-depth answer for those who want to read more.
  • Allowing readers to make informed decisions by making credible information easy to access.
As EOS climbs the ranks we need to recognise there are going to be a lot of skeptical readers coming over and posting their questions. Sometimes they will be irrational, hostile and often just looking for a reaction. We should make it our responsibility to welcome everyone and refrain from responding emotionally to provocative posts, instead providing factual and rational answers.
I will add to this post as and when I can, if you have any ideas or spot any mistakes let me know and I'll get them fixed ASAP. Im planning to add a bit on the team, centralisation and DPOS, governance and EOS VC shortly but please let me hear your suggestions!


1. How do you registeclaim your EOS tokens before June 2018?

Answer courtesy of endless. If you have not done so, you will need to create a new pair of EOS public and private keys and register them with an Ethereum address. This only needs to be done once.
On or around June 1, 2018 all EOS Tokens will become frozen and non-transferable on the Ethereum blockchain. Not long after, I suspect that EOS community members will create a snapshot of token balances that carry over onto a new community generated and selected EOS blockchain. block.one will not be launching EOS blockchains or operating any of their nodes. Additionally, this is a community subreddit unaffiliated in an official capacity with block.one
Method #1: MetaMask (recommended)
Video guide: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8K1Q5hX_4-o
steemit tutorial: https://steemit.com/eos/@ash/full-walkthrough-how-to-join-eos-ico
Method #2: MyEtherWallet
steemit tutorial: https://steemit.com/eos/@sandwich/contributing-to-eos-token-sale-with-myetherwallet-and-contract-inner-workings
Method #3: Exodus Wallet
Official website tutorial: http://support.exodus.io/article/65-i-ve-received-eos-tokens-in-exodus-how-do-i-register-them
Important note courtesy of dskvry bka Sandwich, the author of Method #2's steemit tutorial:
claimAll will not work for most users. When you get to the claim step, please use the following tutorial: https://steemit.com/eos/@koyn/minimizing-the-cost-of-gas-when-claiming-eos-using-myetherwallet
Did you buy your EOS tokens on an exchange? (Courtesy of IQOptionCoin)
  1. Go to the EOS website https://eos.io
  2. Scroll down and select "GET EOS"
  3. Tick all the required boxes and click "Continue"
  4. Scroll down and click "Register"
  5. Select Metamask, MyEtherWallet, or Ethereum Wallet
  6. Follow the guide.
  7. Remember that the reason you need to register your Ethereum ERC-20 address is to include your EOS tokens in order for the balance of your EOS Tokens to be included in the Snapshot if a Snapshot is created, you must register your Ethereum address with an EOS public key. The EOS snapshot will take place prior to the 1 June 2018. After this point your ERC-20 EOS tokens will be frozen. And you will be issued EOS tokens on the EOS blockchain.
So PLEASE REGISTER your Ethereum address NOW, don't forget about it, or plan on doing it some time in the near future.
There are a lot of submissions about this in /eos, so rather than making a new one please reply to this thread with any questions you may have. Don't forget to join the EOS mailing list: https://eos.io/#subscribe and join the EOS community on your platform(s) of choice: Telegram, Discord and/or Facebook.
And remember, if anyone instructs you to transfer ETH to an EOS contract address that doesn't match the address found on https://eos.io you are being scammed.


How to registeclaim your EOS tokens before June 2018 by endless
Official EOS FAQ

2. How will the token the ERC-20 EOS tokens be transferred to the native blockchain?


Quick answer:

There isn't one! Read the long answer then read it again, registering your Ethereum wallet is mandatory!

Long answer:

Within 23 hours after the end of the final period on June 1, 2018 at 22:59:59 UTC, all EOS Tokens will become fixed (ie. frozen) and will become non-transferrable on the Ethereum blockchain.
In order to ensure your tokens are transferred over to the native blockchain you must register your Ethereum address with an EOS public key, if you do not you will lose all your tokens! I am not going to link any tutorials as there are many that can be found by searching Google and YouTube.
block.one is helping with the development of snapshot software that can be used to capture the EOS token balance and registered EOS public key of wallets on the Ethereum blockchain. It is then down to the community to create the snapshot. This snapshot can be used when generating a genesis block for a blockchain implementing eos.io software. block.one will not be launching EOS blockchains or operating any of their nodes.
Exchange Support
Some exchanges have announced that they will support the token swap. Although using this method will undoubtedly be much simpler than registering the tokens yourself it also comes with its pitfalls.
  • It is highly likely there are going to be multiple networks running on the eos.io software that use the snapshot. It is highly unlikely that exchanges will support them all.
  • It is highly likely that exchanges will not support airdrops that use the snapshot.
Exchanges that have announced support for the token swap include:



3. What does EOS aim to achieve?


Quick answer:

EOS.IO software is aiming to provide a decentralized operating system which can support thousands of industrial scale DApps by enabling vertical and horizontal scaling.

Long answer:

EOS.IO is software that introduces a blockchain architecture designed to enable vertical and horizontal scaling of decentralized applications. This is achieved through an operating system-like construct upon which applications can be built. The software provides accounts, authentication, databases, asynchronous communication and the scheduling of applications across multiple CPU cores and/or clusters. The resulting technology is a blockchain architecture that has the potential to scale to millions of transactions per second, eliminates user fees and allows for quick and easy deployment of decentralized applications.


Official EOS FAQ

4. Who are the key team figures behind EOS?

  • CEO Brendan Blumer - Founder of ii5 (1group) and okay.com. He has been in the blockchain industry since 2014 and started selling virtual assets at the age of 15. Brenden can be found on the Forbes Cypto Rich List. Brendan can be found on Twitter.
  • CTO Dan Larimer - Dan's the visionary industry leader who built BitShares, Graphene and Steemit as well as the increasingly popular Proof of Stake Governance and Decentralised Autonomous Organization Concept. He states his mission in life is “to find free market solutions to secure life, liberty, and property for all.”. Dan can also be found on the Forbes Cypto Rich List. Dan can be found on Twitter and Medium.
  • Partner Ian Grigg - Financial cryptographer who's been building cryptographic ledger platforms for 2+ decades. Inventor of the Ricardian Contract and Triple-Entry Accounting.


Forbes Crypto Rich List

5. Where can the latest EOS news be found?


6. Which consensus mechanism does EOS use and what are Block Producers?


Quick answer:

Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) with Byzantine Fault Tolerance. Block Producers (BPs) produce the blocks of the blockchain and are elected by token holders that vote for them. BPs will earn block rewards for their service, these block rewards come in the form of EOS tokens produced by token inflation.

Long answer:

Taken from the EOS.IO Technical White Paper v2:
“EOS.IO software utilizes the only known decentralized consensus algorithm proven capable of meeting the performance requirements of applications on the blockchain, Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS). Under this algorithm, those who hold tokens on a blockchain adopting the EOS.IO software may select block producers through a continuous approval voting system. Anyone may choose to participate in block production and will be given an opportunity to produce blocks, provided they can persuade token holders to vote for them.
The EOS.IO software enables blocks to be produced exactly every 0.5 second and exactly one producer is authorized to produce a block at any given point in time. If the block is not produced at the scheduled time, then the block for that time slot is skipped. When one or more blocks are skipped, there is a 0.5 or more second gap in the blockchain.
Using the EOS.IO software, blocks are produced in rounds of 126 (6 blocks each, times 21 producers). At the start of each round 21 unique block producers are chosen by preference of votes cast by token holders. The selected producers are scheduled in an order agreed upon by 15 or more producers.
Byzantine Fault Tolerance is added to traditional DPOS by allowing all producers to sign all blocks so long as no producer signs two blocks with the same timestamp or the same block height. Once 15 producers have signed a block the block is deemed irreversible. Any byzantine producer would have to generate cryptographic evidence of their treason by signing two blocks with the same timestamp or blockheight. Under this model a irreversible consensus should be reachable within 1 second."

7. How does the voting process work?

The voting process will begin once the Block Producer community releases a joint statement ensuring that it is safe to import private keys and vote.
Broadly speaking there will be two methods of voting:
  1. Command Line Interface (CLI) tools
  2. Web portals
EOS Canada has created eosc, a CLI tool that supports Block Producer voting. Other Block Producer candidates such as LibertyBlock are a releasing web portal that will be ready for main net launch. There will be many more options over the coming weeks, please make sure you are always using a service from a trusted entity.
Remember: Do not import your private key until you have seen a joint statement released from at least five Block Producers that you trust which states when it is safe to do so. Ignoring this warning could result in tokens lost.

8. What makes EOS a good investment?

  • Team - EOS is spearheaded by the visionary that brought us the hugely successful Bitshares and Steem - arguably with two projects already under his belt there is no one more accomplished in the space.
  • Funding - EOS is one of the best funded projects in the space. The block.one team has committed $1B to investing in funds that grow the EOS echo system. EOS VC funds are managed by venture leaders distributed around the world to insure founders in all markets have the ability to work directly with local investors. Incentives such as the EOS hackathon are also in place with $1,500,000 USD in Prizes Across 4 Events.
  • Community Focus - The team is aware that the a projects success depends almost entirely on its adoption. For this reason there has been a huge push to develop a strong world wide community. There is already a surplus number of block producers that have registered their interest and started to ready themselves for the launch and incentives the EOS hackathon are being used to grow the community. A index of projects using EOS can be found at https://eosindex.io/posts.
  • Technical Advantages - See point 9!

9. What are the unique selling points of EOS?

  • Scaleability
    • Potential to scale to millions of transactions per second
    • Inter-blockchain communication
    • Separates authentication from execution
  • Flexibility
    • Freeze and fix broken applications
    • Generalised role based permissions
    • Web Assembly
  • Usability
    • Elimination of transaction fees
    • True user accounts with usernames, passwords and account recovery (no more having to remember long cryptographic keys)
    • Web toolkit for interface development


EOS Whitepaper

10. Is there currently a working product?


Quick answer:

This depends entirely on your definition of working product. If a fully featured developer release meets your definition then yes!. Otherwise the public release will be June 2018.

Long answer:

EOS differs from other projects in that it aims to deliver a fully featured version of the software on launch. The Dawn 3.0 RC1 feature complete pre-release became available on April 5th. This version has all the features of the final release that is due June 2018. Further development will involve preparing the final system contract which implements all of the staking, voting, and governance mechanics. The common notion that there is no viewable code published is wrong and the initial Dawn 1.0 release has been available from September 14th 2017.
EOSIO V1 - June 2nd 2018
Dawn 3.0 RC1 - April 5th 2018
Dawn 3.0 Alpha - January 23rd 2018
Dawn 2.0 - December 4th 2017
Dawn 1.0 - September 14th 2017



11. EOS is an ERC-20 token, how can it possibly be a competitor to other platforms?


Quick answer:

The ERC-20 token is used only for raising funds during the token distribution; all tokens will be transferred to the native blockchain once launched.

Long answer:

EOS team has clearly stated their reason for choosing the Ethereum network when they described the rationale behind the ICO model. Specifically, the ICO should be a fair and auditable process, with as little trust required as possible. If you believe that an ICO should be fair, auditable, and trustless, you have no choice but to use a decentralized smart contract blockchain to run the ICO, the largest, and by-far most popular of which is Ethereum. Since EOS is intended to be a major competitor for Ethereum, some have seen this as a hypocritical choice. - Stolen from trogdor on Steam (I couldn’t word it any better myself).  


The EOS ico for dummies by trogdor
Official EOS FAQ

12. Why do the eos.io T&C’s say the ERC-20 token has no value?

The EOS T&C’s famously state:
"The EOS Tokens do not have any rights, uses, purpose, attributes, functionalities or features, express or implied, including, without limitation, any uses, purpose, attributes, functionalities or features on the EOS Platform."

Quick answer:

This is legal wording to avoid all the legal complications in this emerging space, block.one do not want to find themselves in a lawsuit as we are seeing with an increasing amount of other ICOs. Most notably Tezos (links below).

Long answer:

This all comes down to legal issues. Anyone who’s been into crypto for 5 minuets knows that government bodies such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are now paying attention to crypto in a big way. This legal wording is to avoid all the legal complications in this emerging space, block.one do not want to find themselves in a lawsuit as we are seeing with an increasing amount of other ICOs. Many token creators that launched ICOs are now in deep water for selling unregistered securities.
A filing from the Tezos lawsuit:
"In sum, Defendants capitalized on the recent enthusiasm for blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies to raise funds through the ICO, illegally sold unqualified and unregistered securities, used a Swiss-based entity in an unsuccessful attempt to evade U.S. securities laws, and are now admittedly engaged in the conversion, selling, and possible dissipation of the proceeds that they collected from the Class through their unregistered offering."
To ensure EOS tokens are not classed as a unregistered security block.one has made it clear that they are creating the EOS software only and won’t launching a public blockchain themselves. This task is left down to the community, or more precisely, the Block Producers (BPs). The following disclaimer is seen after posts from block.one:
"block.one is a software company and is producing the EOS.IO software as free, open source software. This software may enable those who deploy it to launch a blockchain or decentralized applications with the features described above. block.one will not be launching a public blockchain based on the EOS.IO software. It will be the sole responsibility of third parties and the community and those who wish to become block producers to implement the features and/or provide the services described above as they see fit. block.one does not guarantee that anyone will implement such features or provide such services or that the EOS.IO software will be adopted and deployed in any way.”
It is expected that many blockchains using eos.io software will emerge. To ensure DAPPs are created on an ecosystem that aligns with the interests of block.one a $1bn fund will be has been created to incentivise projects to use this blockchain.


EOS.io FAQ Great video on this topic by The Awakenment EOS $1bn Fund Announcement Article on the Tezos lawsuit Article on the Gigawatt lawsuit An official block.one post featuring disclaimer

13. Why is the token distribution one year long?

Official statement from block.one:
“A lot of token distributions only allow a small amount of people to participate. The EOS Token distribution structure was created to provide a sufficient period of time for people to participate if they so choose, as well as give people the opportunity to see the development of the EOS.IO Software prior to making a decision to purchase EOS Tokens.”
It is also worth noting that block.one had no knowledge how much the the token distribution would raise as it is determined by the free market and the length of the token distribution is coded into the Ethereum smart contract, which cannot be changed.



14. Where is the money going from the token distribution?


Quick answer:

Funding for the project was raised before EOS was announced, the additional money raised from the token distribution is largely going to fund projects on EOS.

Long answer:

A large portion of the money raised is getting put back into the community to incentivise projects using eos.io software. block.one raised all the money they needed to develop the software before the ERC-20 tokens went on sale. There are some conspiracies that block.one are pumping the price of EOS using the funds raised. The good thing about blockchain is you can trace all the transactions, which show nothing of the sort. Not only this but the EOS team are going to have an independent audit after the funding is complete for piece of mind.
From eos.io FAQ:
“block.one intends to engage an independent third party auditor who will release an independent audit report providing further assurances that block.one has not purchased EOS Tokens during the EOS Token distribution period or traded EOS Tokens (including using proceeds from the EOS Token distribution for these purposes). This report will be made available to the public on the eos.io website.”


EOS.io FAQ EOS $1bn Fund Announcement

15. Who's using EOS?

With 2 months from launch left there is a vibrant community forming around EOS. Some of the most notable projects that EOS software will support are:
A more complete list of EOS projects can be found at eosindex.io.

16. Dan left his previous projects, will he leave EOS?


Quick answer:

When EOS has been created Dan will move onto creating projects for EOS with block.one.

Long answer:

When a blockchain project has gained momentum and a strong community has formed the project takes on a life of its own and the communities often have ideas that differ from the creators. As we have seen with the Bitcoin and Ethereum hark forks you cant pivot a community too much in a different direction, especially if its changing the fundamentals of the blockchain. Instead of acting like a tyrant Dan has let the communities do what they want and gone a different way. Both the Bitshares and Steem were left in a great position and with Dans help turned out to be two of the most successful blockchain projects to date. Some would argue the most successful projects that are actually useable and have a real use case.
What Dan does best is build the architecture and show whats possible. Anyone can then go on to do the upgrades. He is creating EOS to build his future projects upon it. He has stated he loves working at block.one with Brendan and the team and there is far too much momentum behind EOS for him to possibly leave.


Dans future beyond EOS
Why Dan left Bitshares
Why Dan left Steem

17. Is EOS susceptible to DDoS attacks?

No one could have better knowledge on this subject than our Block Producer candidates, I have chosen to look to EOS New York for this answer:
"DDoS'ing a block producing is not as simple as knowing their IP address and hitting "go". We have distributed systems engineers in each of our candidate groups that have worked to defend DDoS systems in their careers. Infrastructure can be built in a way to minimize the exposure of the Block Producing node itself and to prevent a DDoS attack. We haven't published our full architecture yet but let's take a look at fellow candidate EOSphere to see what we mean. As for the launch of the network, we are assuming there will be attacks on the network as we launch. It is being built into the network launch plans. I will reach out to our engineers to get a more detailed answer for you. What also must be considered is that there will be 121 total producing and non-producing nodes on the network. To DDoS all 121 which are located all around the world with different security configurations at the exact same time would be a monumental achievement."


eosnewyork on DDoS attackd
EOSSphere Architecture

18. If block producers can alter code how do we know they will not do so maliciously?


Quick answer:

  • Block producers are voted in by stake holders.
  • Changes to the protocol, constitution or other updates are proposed to the community by block producers.
  • Changes takes 2 to 3 months due to the fact block producers must maintain 15/21 approval for a set amount of time while for changes to be processed.
  • To ensure bad actors can be identified and expelled the block.one backed community will not back an open-entry system built around anonymous participation.

Long answer:

For this question we must understand the following.
  • Governance and why it is used.
  • The process of upgrading the protocol, constitution & other updates.
  • Dan’s view on open-entry systems built around anonymous participation.
Cryptography can only be used to prove logical consistency. It cannot be used to make subjective judgment calls, determine right or wrong, or even identify truth or falsehood (outside of consistency). We need humans to perform these tasks and therefore we need governance!
Governance is the process by which people in a community:
  1. Reach consensus on subjective matters of collective action that cannot be captured entirely by software algorithms;
  2. Carry out the decisions they reach; and
  3. Alter the governance rules themselves via Constitutional amendments.
Embedded into the EOS.IO software is the election of block producers. Before any change can be made to the blockchain these block producers must approve it. If the block producers refuse to make changes desired by the token holders then they can be voted out. If the block producers make changes without permission of the token holders then all other non-producing full-node validators (exchanges, etc) will reject the change.
Upgrade process
The EOS.IO software defines the following process by which the protocol, as defined by the canonical source code and its constitution, can be updated:
  1. Block producers propose a change to the constitution and obtains 15/21 approval.
  2. Block producers maintain 15/21 approval of the new constitution for 30 consecutive days.
  3. All users are required to indicate acceptance of the new constitution as a condition of future transactions being processed.
  4. Block producers adopt changes to the source code to reflect the change in the constitution and propose it to the blockchain using the hash of the new constitution.
  5. Block producers maintain 15/21 approval of the new code for 30 consecutive days.
  6. Changes to the code take effect 7 days later, giving all non-producing full nodes 1 week to upgrade after ratification of the source code.
  7. All nodes that do not upgrade to the new code shut down automatically.
By default, configuration of the EOS.IO software, the process of updating the blockchain to add new features takes 2 to 3 months, while updates to fix non-critical bugs that do not require changes to the constitution can take 1 to 2 months.
Open-entry systems built around anonymous participation
To ensure bad actors can be identified and expelled the block.one backed community will not back an open-entry system built around anonymous participation.
Dan's quote:
"The only way to maintain the integrity of a community is for the community to have control over its own composition. This means that open-entry systems built around anonymous participation will have no means expelling bad actors and will eventually succumb to profit-driven corruption. You cannot use stake as a proxy for goodness whether that stake is held in a bond or a shareholder’s vote. Goodness is subjective and it is up to each community to define what values they hold as good and to actively expel people they hold has bad.
The community I want to participate in will expel the rent-seeking vote-buyers and reward those who use their elected broadcasting power for the benefit of all community members rather than special interest groups (such as vote-buyers). I have faith that such a community will be far more competitive in a market competition for mindshare than one that elects vote buyers."


The Limits of Crypto-economic Governance
EOS.IO Technical White Paper v2

19. What is the most secure way to generate EOS key pairs?

Block producer candidates EOS Cafe and EOS New York have come forward to help the community with this topic.
The block producer candidate eosnewyork has kindly posted a tutorial on steemit detailing the steps that need to be taken to generate key pairs using the official code on the EOS.IO Github.
The block producer candidate eoscafe has gone a step further and released an Offline EOS Key Generator application complete with GUI for Windows, Linux & Mac. Not only can this application generate key pairs but it can also validate key pairs and resolve public keys from private keys. This application has also been vouched for by EOS New York


EOS.IO Github
eosnewyork's key pair generation tutorial
eoscafe's offline key par generation application  
submitted by Techno-Tech to eos [link] [comments]

A Beginners Guide to Bitcoin, Blockchain & Cryptocurrency

As cryptocurrency, and blockchain technology become more abundant throughout our society, it’s important to understand the inner workings of this technology, especially if you plan to use cryptocurrency as an investment vehicle. If you’re new to the crypto-sphere, learning about Bitcoin makes it much easier to understand other cryptocurrencies as many other altcoins' technologies are borrowed directly from Bitcoin.
Bitcoin is one of those things that you look into only to discover you have more questions than answers, and right as you’re starting to wrap your head around the technology; you discover the fact that Bitcoin has six other variants (forks), the amount of politics at hand, or that there are over a thousand different cryptocurrencies just as complex if not even more complex than Bitcoin.
We are currently in the infancy of blockchain technology and the effects of this technology will be as profound as the internet. This isn’t something that’s just going to fade away into history as you may have been led to believe. I believe this is something that will become an integral part of our society, eventually embedded within our technology. If you’re a crypto-newbie, be glad that you're relatively early to the industry. I hope this post will put you on the fast-track to understanding Bitcoin, blockchain, and how a large percentage of cryptocurrencies work.

Community Terminology

Altcoin: Short for alternative coin. There are over 1,000 different cryptocurrencies. You’re probably most familiar with Bitcoin. Anything that isn’t Bitcoin is generally referred to as an altcoin.
HODL: Misspelling of hold. Dank meme accidentally started by this dude. Hodlers are much more interested in long term gains rather than playing the risky game of trying to time the market.
TO THE MOON: When a cryptocurrency’s price rapidly increases. A major price spike of over 1,000% can look like it’s blasting off to the moon. Just be sure you’re wearing your seatbelt when it comes crashing down.
FUD: Fear. Uncertainty. Doubt.
FOMO: Fear of missing out.
Bull Run: Financial term used to describe a rising market.
Bear Run: Financial term used to describe a falling market.

What Is Bitcoin?

Bitcoin (BTC) is a decentralized digital currency that uses cryptography to secure and ensure validity of transactions within the network. Hence the term crypto-currency. Decentralization is a key aspect of Bitcoin. There is no CEO of Bitcoin or central authoritative government in control of the currency. The currency is ran and operated by the people, for the people. One of the main development teams behind Bitcoin is blockstream.
Bitcoin is a product of blockchain technology. Blockchain is what allows for the security and decentralization of Bitcoin. To understand Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, you must understand to some degree, blockchain. This can get extremely technical the further down the rabbit hole you go, and because this is technically a beginners guide, I’m going to try and simplify to the best of my ability and provide resources for further technical reading.

A Brief History

Bitcoin was created by Satoshi Nakamoto. The identity of Nakamoto is unknown. The idea of Bitcoin was first introduced in 2008 when Nakamoto released the Bitcoin white paper - Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. Later, in January 2009, Nakamoto announced the Bitcoin software and the Bitcoin network officially began.
I should also mention that the smallest unit of a Bitcoin is called a Satoshi. 1 BTC = 100,000,000 Satoshis. When purchasing Bitcoin, you don’t actually need to purchase an entire coin. Bitcoin is divisible, so you can purchase any amount greater than 1 Satoshi (0.00000001 BTC).

What Is Blockchain?

Blockchain is a distributed ledger, a distributed collection of accounts. What is being accounted for depends on the use-case of the blockchain itself. In the case of Bitcoin, what is being accounted for is financial transactions.
The first block in a blockchain is referred to as the genesis block. A block is an aggregate of data. Blocks are also discovered through a process known as mining (more on this later). Each block is cryptographically signed by the previous block in the chain and visualizing this would look something akin to a chain of blocks, hence the term, blockchain.
For more information regarding blockchain I’ve provided more resouces below:

What is Bitcoin Mining

Bitcoin mining is one solution to the double spend problem. Bitcoin mining is how transactions are placed into blocks and added onto the blockchain. This is done to ensure proof of work, where computational power is staked in order to solve what is essentially a puzzle. If you solve the puzzle correctly, you are rewarded Bitcoin in the form of transaction fees, and the predetermined block reward. The Bitcoin given during a block reward is also the only way new Bitcoin can be introduced into the economy. With a halving event occurring roughly every 4 years, it is estimated that the last Bitcoin block will be mined in the year 2,140. (See What is Block Reward below for more info).
Mining is one of those aspects of Bitcoin that can get extremely technical and more complicated the further down the rabbit hole you go. An entire website could be created (and many have) dedicated solely to information regarding Bitcoin mining. The small paragraph above is meant to briefly expose you to the function of mining and the role it plays within the ecosystem. It doesn’t even scratch the surface regarding the topic.

How do you Purchase Bitcoin?

The most popular way to purchase Bitcoin through is through an online exchange where you trade fiat (your national currency) for Bitcoin.
Popular exchanges include:
  • Coinbase
  • Kraken
  • Cex
  • Gemini
There’s tons of different exchanges. Just make sure you find one that supports your national currency.


Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are EXTREMELY volatile. Swings of 30% or more within a few days is not unheard of. Understand that there is always inherent risks with any investment. Cryptocurrencies especially. Only invest what you’re willing to lose.

Transaction & Network Fees

Transacting on the Bitcoin network is not free. Every purchase or transfer of Bitcoin will cost X amount of BTC depending on how congested the network is. These fees are given to miners as apart of the block reward.
Late 2017 when Bitcoin got up to $20,000USD, the average network fee was ~$50. Currently, at the time of writing this, the average network fee is $1.46. This data is available in real-time on BitInfoCharts.


In this new era of money, there is no central bank or government you can go to in need of assistance. This means the responsibility of your money falls 100% into your hands. That being said, the security regarding your cryptocurrency should be impeccable. The anonymity provided by cryptocurrencies alone makes you a valuable target to hackers and scammers. Below I’ve detailed out best practices regarding securing your cryptocurrency.

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

Two-factor authentication is a second way of authenticating your identity upon signing in to an account. Most cryptocurrency related software/websites will offer or require some form of 2FA. Upon creation of any crypto-related account find the Security section and enable 2FA.

SMS Authentication

The most basic form of 2FA which you are probably most familiar with. This form of authentication sends a text message to your smartphone with a special code that will allow access to your account upon entry. Note that this is not the safest form of 2FA as you may still be vulnerable to what is known as a SIM swap attack. SIM swapping is a social engineering method in which an attacker will call up your phone carrier, impersonating you, in attempt to re-activate your SIM card on his/her device. Once the attacker has access to your SIM card he/she now has access to your text messages which can then be used to access your online accounts. You can prevent this by using an authenticator such as Google Authenticator.


The use of an authenticator is the safest form of 2FA. An authenticator is installed on a seperate device and enabling it requires you input an ever changing six digit code in order to access your account. I recommend using Google Authenticator.
If a website has the option to enable an authenticator, it will give you a QR code and secret key. Use Google Authenticator to scan the QR code. The secret key consists of a random string of numbers and letters. Write this down on a seperate sheet of paper and do not store it on a digital device.
Once Google Authenticator has been enabled, every time you sign into your account, you will have to input a six-digit code that looks similar to this. If you happen to lose or damage the device you have Google Authenticator installed on, you will be locked out of your account UNLESS you have access to the secret key (which you should have written down).

Hardware Wallets

A wallet is what you store Bitcoin and cryptocurrency on. I’ll provide resources on the different type of wallets later but I want to emphasize the use of a hardware wallet (aka cold storage).
Hardware wallets are the safest way of storing cryptocurrency because it allows for your crypto to be kept offline in a physical device. After purchasing crypto via an exchange, I recommend transferring it to cold storage. The most popular hardware wallets include the Ledger Nano S, and Trezor.
Hardware wallets come with a special key so that if it gets lost or damaged, you can recover your crypto. I recommend keeping your recovery key as well as any other sensitive information in a safety deposit box.
I know this all may seem a bit manic, but it is important you take the necessary security precautions in order to ensure the safety & longevity of your cryptocurrency.

Technical Aspects of Bitcoin

  • Address: What you send Bitcoin to.
  • Wallet: Where you store your Bitcoin
  • Max Supply: 21 million
  • Block Time: ~10 minutes
  • Block Size: 1-2 MB
  • Block Reward: BTC reward received from mining.

What is a Bitcoin Address?

A Bitcoin address is what you send Bitcoin to. If you want to receive Bitcoin you’d give someone your Bitcoin address. Think of a Bitcoin address as an email address for money.

What is a Bitcoin Wallet?

As the title implies, a Bitcoin wallet is anything that can store Bitcoin. There are many different types of wallets including paper wallets, software wallets and hardware wallets. It is generally advised NOT to keep cryptocurrency on an exchange, as exchanges are prone to hacks (see Mt. Gox hack).
My preferred method of storing cryptocurrency is using a hardware wallet such as the Ledger Nano S or Trezor. These allow you to keep your crypto offline in physical form and as a result, much more safe from hacks. Paper wallets also allow for this but have less functionality in my opinion.
After I make crypto purchases, I transfer it to my Ledger Nano S and keep that in a safe at home. Hardware wallets also come with a special key so that if it gets lost or damaged, you can recover your crypto. I recommend keeping your recovery key in a safety deposit box.

What is Bitcoins Max Supply?

The max supply of Bitcoin is 21 million. The only way new Bitcoins can be introduced into the economy are through block rewards which are given after successfully mining a block (more on this later).

What is Bitcoins Block Time?

The average time in which blocks are created is called block time. For Bitcoin, the block time is ~10 minutes, meaning, 10 minutes is the minimum amount of time it will take for a Bitcoin transaction to be processed. Note that transactions on the Bitcoin network can take much longer depending on how congested the network is. Having to wait a few hours or even a few days in some instances for a transaction to clear is not unheard of.
Other cryptocurrencies will have different block times. For example, Ethereum has a block time of ~15 seconds.
For more information on how block time works, Prabath Siriwardena has a good block post on this subject which can be found here.

What is Bitcoins Block Size?

There is a limit to how large blocks can be. In the early days of Bitcoin, the block size was 36MB, but in 2010 this was reduced to 1 MB in order to prevent distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS), spam, and other malicious use on the blockchain. Nowadays, blocks are routinely in excess of 1MB, with the largest to date being somewhere around 2.1 MB.
There is much debate amongst the community on whether or not to increase Bitcoin’s block size limit to account for ever-increasing network demand. A larger block size would allow for more transactions to be processed. The con argument to this is that decentralization would be at risk as mining would become more centralized. As a result of this debate, on August 1, 2017, Bitcoin underwent a hard-fork and Bitcoin Cash was created which has a block size limit of 8 MB. Note that these are two completely different blockchains and sending Bitcoin to a Bitcoin Cash wallet (or vice versa) will result in a failed transaction.
Update: As of May 15th, 2018 Bitcoin Cash underwent another hard fork and the block size has increased to 32 MB.
On the topic of Bitcoin vs Bitcoin Cash and which cryptocurrency is better, I’ll let you do your own research and make that decision for yourself. It is good to know that this is a debated topic within the community and example of the politics that manifest within the space. Now if you see community members arguing about this topic, you’ll at least have a bit of background to the issue.

What is Block Reward?

Block reward is the BTC you receive after discovering a block. Blocks are discovered through a process called mining. The only way new BTC can be added to the economy is through block rewards and the block reward is halved every 210,000 blocks (approximately every 4 years). Halving events are done to limit the supply of Bitcoin. At the inception of Bitcoin, the block reward was 50BTC. At the time of writing this, the block reward is 12.5BTC. Halving events will continue to occur until the amount of new Bitcoin introduced into the economy becomes less than 1 Satoshi. This is expected to happen around the year 2,140. All 21 million Bitcoins will have been mined. Once all Bitcoins have been mined, the block reward will only consist of transaction fees.

Technical Aspects Continued

Understanding Nodes

Straight from the Bitcoin.it wiki
Any computer that connects to the Bitcoin network is called a node. Nodes that fully verify all of the rules of Bitcoin are called full nodes.
In other words, full nodes are what verify the Bitcoin blockchain and they play a crucial role in maintaining the decentralized network. Full nodes store the entirety of the blockchain and validate transactions. Anyone can participate in the Bitcoin network and run a full node. Bitcoin.org has information on how to set up a full node. Running a full node also gives you wallet capabilities and the ability to query the blockchain.
For more information on Bitcoin nodes, see Andreas Antonopoulos’s Q&A on the role of nodes.

What is a Fork?

A fork is a divergence in a blockchain. Since Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer network, there’s an overall set of rules (protocol) in which participants within the network must abide by. These rules are put in place to form network consensus. Forks occur when implementations must be made to the blockchain or if there is disagreement amongst the network on how consensus should be achieved.

Soft Fork vs Hard Fork

The difference between soft and hard forks lies in compatibility. Soft forks are backwards compatible, hard forks are not. Think of soft forks as software upgrades to the blockchain, whereas hard forks are a software upgrade that warrant a completely new blockchain.
During a soft fork, miners and nodes upgrade their software to support new consensus rules. Nodes that do not upgrade will still accept the new blockchain.
Examples of Bitcoin soft forks include:
A hard fork can be thought of as the creation of a new blockchain that X percentage of the community decides to migrate too. During a hard fork, miners and nodes upgrade their software to support new consensus rules, Nodes that do not upgrade are invalid and cannot accept the new blockchain.
Examples of Bitcoin hard forks include:
  • Bitcoin Cash
  • Bitcoin Gold
Note that these are completely different blockchains and independent from the Bitcoin blockchain. If you try to send Bitcoin to one of these blockchains, the transaction will fail.

A Case For Bitcoin in a World of Centralization

Our current financial system is centralized, which means the ledger(s) that operate within this centralized system are subjugated to control, manipulation, fraud, and many other negative aspects that come with this system. There are also pros that come with a centralized system, such as the ability to swiftly make decisions. However, at some point, the cons outweigh the pros, and change is needed. What makes Bitcoin so special as opposed to our current financial system is that Bitcoin allows for the decentralized transfer of money. Not one person owns the Bitcoin network, everybody does. Not one person controls Bitcoin, everybody does. A decentralized system in theory removes much of the baggage that comes with a centralized system. Not to say the Bitcoin network doesn’t have its problems (wink wink it does), and there’s much debate amongst the community as to how to go about solving these issues. But even tiny steps are significant steps in the world of blockchain, and I believe Bitcoin will ultimately help to democratize our financial system, whether or not you believe it is here to stay for good.

Final Conclusions

Well that was a lot of words… Anyways I hope this guide was beneficial, especially to you crypto newbies out there. You may have come into this realm not expecting there to be an abundance of information to learn about. I know I didn’t. Bitcoin is only the tip of the iceberg, but now that you have a fundamental understanding of Bitcoin, learning about other cryptocurrencies such as Litecoin, and Ethereum will come more naturally.
Feel free to ask questions below! I’m sure either the community or myself would be happy to answer your questions.
Thanks for reading!

Related Links



submitted by MrCryptoDude to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

User Activated Soft Fork Split Protection | James Hilliard | Jun 07 2017

James Hilliard on Jun 07 2017:
Due to the proposed calendar(https://segwit2x.github.io/) for the
SegWit2x agreement being too slow to activate SegWit mandatory
signalling ahead of BIP148 using BIP91 I would like to propose another
option that miners can use to prevent a chain split ahead of the Aug
1st BIP148 activation date.
The splitprotection soft fork is essentially BIP91 but using BIP8
instead of BIP9 with a lower activation threshold and immediate
mandatory signalling lock-in. This allows for a majority of miners to
activate mandatory SegWit signalling and prevent a potential chain
split ahead of BIP148 activation.
This BIP allows for miners to respond to market forces quickly ahead
of BIP148 activation by signalling for splitprotection. Any miners
already running BIP148 should be encouraged to use splitprotection.
BIP: splitprotection
Layer: Consensus (soft fork)
Title: User Activated Soft Fork Split Protection
Author: James Hilliard
Comments-Summary: No comments yet.
Status: Draft
Type: Standards Track
Created: 2017-05-22
License: BSD-3-Clause
This document specifies a coordination mechanism for a simple majority
of miners to prevent a chain split ahead of BIP148 activation.
"existing segwit deployment" refer to the BIP9 "segwit" deployment
using bit 1, between November 15th 2016 and November 15th 2017 to
activate BIP141, BIP143 and BIP147.
The biggest risk of BIP148 is an extended chain split, this BIP
provides a way for a simple majority of miners to eliminate that risk.
This BIP provides a way for a simple majority of miners to coordinate
activation of the existing segwit deployment with less than 95%
hashpower before BIP148 activation. Due to time constraints unless
immediately deployed BIP91 will likely not be able to enforce
mandatory signalling of segwit before the Aug 1st activation of
BIP148. This BIP provides a method for rapid miner activation of
SegWit mandatory signalling ahead of the BIP148 activation date. Since
the primary goal of this BIP is to reduce the chance of an extended
chain split as much as possible we activate using a simple miner
majority of 65% over a 504 block interval rather than a higher
percentage. This BIP also allows miners to signal their intention to
run BIP148 in order to prevent a chain split.
While this BIP is active, all blocks must set the nVersion header top
3 bits to 001 together with bit field (1<<1) (according to the
existing segwit deployment). Blocks that do not signal as required
will be rejected.
This BIP will be deployed by "version bits" with a 65%(this can be
adjusted if desired) activation threshold BIP9 with the name
"splitprotecion" and using bit 2.
This BIP starts immediately and is a BIP8 style soft fork since
mandatory signalling will start on midnight August 1st 2017 (epoch
time 1501545600) regardless of whether or not this BIP has reached its
own signalling threshold. This BIP will cease to be active when segwit
is locked-in.
=== Reference implementation ===
// Check if Segregated Witness is Locked In
bool IsWitnessLockedIn(const CBlockIndex* pindexPrev, const
Consensus::Params& params)
LOCK(cs_main); return (VersionBitsState(pindexPrev, params, 
Consensus::DEPLOYMENT_SEGWIT, versionbitscache) ==
// SPLITPROTECTION mandatory segwit signalling.
if ( VersionBitsState(pindex->pprev, chainparams.GetConsensus(),
Consensus::DEPLOYMENT_SPLITPROTECTION, versionbitscache) ==
 !IsWitnessLockedIn(pindex->pprev, chainparams.GetConsensus()) && 
// Segwit is not locked in
 !IsWitnessEnabled(pindex->pprev, chainparams.GetConsensus()) ) // 
and is not active.
bool fVersionBits = (pindex->nVersion & VERSIONBITS_TOP_MASK) == 
bool fSegbit = (pindex->nVersion & 
Consensus::DEPLOYMENT_SEGWIT)) != 0;
if (!(fVersionBits && fSegbit)) { return state.DoS(0, error("ConnectBlock(): relayed block must 
signal for segwit, please upgrade"), REJECT_INVALID, "bad-no-segwit");
// BIP148 mandatory segwit signalling.
int64_t nMedianTimePast = pindex->GetMedianTimePast();
if ( (nMedianTimePast >= 1501545600) && // Tue 01 Aug 2017 00:00:00 UTC
 (nMedianTimePast <= 1510704000) && // Wed 15 Nov 2017 00:00:00 UTC (!IsWitnessLockedIn(pindex->pprev, chainparams.GetConsensus()) && 
// Segwit is not locked in
 !IsWitnessEnabled(pindex->pprev, chainparams.GetConsensus())) ) 
// and is not active.
bool fVersionBits = (pindex->nVersion & VERSIONBITS_TOP_MASK) == 
bool fSegbit = (pindex->nVersion & 
Consensus::DEPLOYMENT_SEGWIT)) != 0;
if (!(fVersionBits && fSegbit)) { return state.DoS(0, error("ConnectBlock(): relayed block must 
signal for segwit, please upgrade"), REJECT_INVALID, "bad-no-segwit");
==Backwards Compatibility==
This deployment is compatible with the existing "segwit" bit 1
deployment scheduled between midnight November 15th, 2016 and midnight
November 15th, 2017. This deployment is also compatible with the
existing BIP148 deployment. This BIP is compatible with BIP91 only if
BIP91 activates before it and before BIP148. Miners will need to
upgrade their nodes to support splitprotection otherwise they may
build on top of an invalid block. While this bip is active users
should either upgrade to splitprotection or wait for additional
confirmations when accepting payments.
Historically we have used IsSuperMajority() to activate soft forks
such as BIP66 which has a mandatory signalling requirement for miners
once activated, this ensures that miners are aware of new rules being
enforced. This technique can be leveraged to lower the signalling
threshold of a soft fork while it is in the process of being deployed
in a backwards compatible way. We also use a BIP8 style timeout to
ensure that this BIP is compatible with BIP148 and that BIP148
compatible mandatory signalling activates regardless of miner
signalling levels.
By orphaning non-signalling blocks during the BIP9 bit 1 "segwit"
deployment, this BIP can cause the existing "segwit" deployment to
activate without needing to release a new deployment. As we approach
BIP148 activation it may be desirable for a majority of miners to have
a method that will ensure that there is no chain split.
Mailing list discussion]
P2SH flag day activation]
*[[bip-0009.mediawiki|BIP9 Version bits with timeout and delay]]
*[[bip-0016.mediawiki|BIP16 Pay to Script Hash]]
*[[bip-0091.mediawiki|BIP91 Reduced threshold Segwit MASF]]
*[[bip-0141.mediawiki|BIP141 Segregated Witness (Consensus layer)]]
*[[bip-0143.mediawiki|BIP143 Transaction Signature Verification for
Version 0 Witness Program]]
*[[bip-0147.mediawiki|BIP147 Dealing with dummy stack element malleability]]
*[[bip-0148.mediawiki|BIP148 Mandatory activation of segwit deployment]]
*[[bip-0149.mediawiki|BIP149 Segregated Witness (second deployment)]]
*[https://bitcoincore.org/en/2016/01/26/segwit-benefits/ Segwit benefits]
This document is dual licensed as BSD 3-clause, and Creative Commons
CC0 1.0 Universal.
original: https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2017-June/014508.html
submitted by dev_list_bot to bitcoin_devlist [link] [comments]

Forcenet: an experimental network with a new header format | Johnson Lau | Dec 04 2016

Johnson Lau on Dec 04 2016:
Based on Luke Dashjr’s code and BIP: https://github.com/luke-jbips/blob/bip-mmhf/bip-mmhf.mediawiki , I created an experimental network to show how a new header format may be implemented.
Basically, the header hash is calculated in a way that non-upgrading nodes would see it as a block with only the coinbase tx and zero output value. They are effectively broken as they won’t see any transactions confirmed. This allows rewriting most of the rules related to block and transaction validity. Such technique has different names like soft-hardfork, firmfork, evil softfork, and could be itself a controversial topic. However, I’d rather not to focus on its soft-hardfork property, as that would be trivial to turn this into a true hardfork (e.g. setting the sign bit in block nVersion, or setting the most significant bit in the dummy coinbase nLockTime)
Instead of its soft-HF property, I think the more interesting thing is the new header format. The current bitcoin header has only 80 bytes. It provides only 32bits of nonce space and is far not enough for ASICs. It also provides no room for committing to additional data. Therefore, people are forced to put many different data in the coinbase transaction, such as merge-mining commitments, and the segwit commitment. It is not a ideal solution, especially for light wallets.
Following the practice of segwit development of making a experimental network (segnet), I made something similar and call it the Forcenet (as it forces legacy nodes to follow the post-fork chain)
The header of forcenet is mostly described in Luke’s BIP, but I have made some amendments as I implemented it. The format is (size in parentheses; little endian):
Height (4), BIP9 signalling field (4), hardfork signalling field (3), merge-mining hard fork signalling field (1), prev hash (32), timestamp (4), nonce1 (4), nonce2 (4), nonce3 (compactSize + variable), Hash TMR (32), Hash WMR (32), total tx size (8) , total tx weight (8), total sigops (8), number of tx (4), merkle branches leading to header C (compactSize + 32 bit hashes)
In addition to increasing the max block size, I also showed how the calculation and validation of witness commitment may be changed with a new header. For example, since the commitment is no longer in the coinbase tx, we don’t need to use a 0000….0000 hash for the coinbase tx like in BIP141.
Something not yet done:
  1. The new merkle root algorithm described in the MMHF BIP
  2. The nTxsSigops has no meaning currently
  3. Communication with legacy nodes. This version can’t talk to legacy nodes through the P2P network, but theoretically they could be linked up with a bridge node
  4. A new block weight definition to provide incentives for slowing down UTXO growth
  5. Many other interesting hardfork ideas, and softfork ideas that works better with a header redesign
For easier testing, forcenet has the following parameters:
Hardfork at block 200
Segwit is always activated
1 minutes block with 40000 (prefork) and 80000 (postfork) weight limit
50 blocks coinbase maturity
21000 blocks halving
144 blocks retarget
How to join: codes at https://github.com/jl2012/bitcoin/tree/forcenet1 , start with "bitcoind —forcenet" .
Connection: I’m running a node at 8333.info with default port (38901)
Mining: there is only basic internal mining support. Limited GBT support is theoretically possible but needs more hacking. To use the internal miner, writeup a shell script to repeatedly call “bitcoin-cli —forcenet generate 1”
New RPC commands: getlegacyblock and getlegacyblockheader, which generates blocks and headers that are compatible with legacy nodes.
This is largely work-in-progress so expect a reset every couple weeks
-------------- next part --------------
A non-text attachment was scrubbed...
Name: signature.asc
Type: application/pgp-signature
Size: 671 bytes
Desc: Message signed with OpenPGP using GPGMail
URL: http://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/attachments/20161205/126aae21/attachment.sig
original: https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2016-Decembe013338.html
submitted by dev_list_bot to bitcoin_devlist [link] [comments]

Reduced signalling threshold activation of existing segwit deployment | James Hilliard | May 22 2017

James Hilliard on May 22 2017:
I would like to propose an implementation that accomplishes the first
part of the Barry Silbert proposal independently from the second:
"Activate Segregated Witness at an 80% threshold, signaling at bit 4"
in a way that
The goal here is to minimize chain split risk and network disruption
while maximizing backwards compatibility and still providing for rapid
activation of segwit at the 80% threshold using bit 4.
By activating segwit immediately and separately from any HF we can
scale quickly without risking a rushed combined segwit+HF that would
almost certainly cause widespread issues.
Draft proposal:
Proposal text:
BIP: segsignal
Layer: Consensus (soft fork)
Title: Reduced signalling threshold activation of existing segwit deployment
Author: James Hilliard
Status: Draft
Type: Standards Track
Created: 2017-05-22
License: BSD-3-Clause
This document specifies a method to activate the existing BIP9 segwit
deployment with a majority hashpower less than 95%.
"existing segwit deployment" refer to the BIP9 "segwit" deployment
using bit 1, between November 15th 2016 and November 15th 2017 to
activate BIP141, BIP143 and BIP147.
Segwit increases the blocksize, fixes transaction malleability, and
makes scripting easier to upgrade as well as bringing many other
[https://bitcoincore.org/en/2016/01/26/segwit-benefits/ benefits].
This BIP provides a way for a simple majority of miners to coordinate
activation of the existing segwit deployment with less than 95%
hashpower. For a number of reasons a complete redeployment of segwit
is difficulty to do until the existing deployment expires. This is due
to 0.13.1+ having many segwit related features active already,
including all the P2P components, the new network service flag, the
witness-tx and block messages, compact blocks v2 and preferential
peering. A redeployment of segwit will need to redefine all these
things and doing so before expiry would greatly complicate testing.
While this BIP is active, all blocks must set the nVersion header top
3 bits to 001 together with bit field (1<<1) (according to the
existing segwit deployment). Blocks that do not signal as required
will be rejected.
This BIP will be deployed by a "version bits" with an 80%(this can be
adjusted if desired) activation threshold BIP9 with the name
"segsignal" and using bit 4.
This BIP will have a start time of midnight June 1st, 2017 (epoch time
1496275200) and timeout on midnight November 15th 2017 (epoch time
1510704000). This BIP will cease to be active when segwit is
=== Reference implementation ===
// Check if Segregated Witness is Locked In
bool IsWitnessLockedIn(const CBlockIndex* pindexPrev, const
Consensus::Params& params)
LOCK(cs_main); return (VersionBitsState(pindexPrev, params, 
Consensus::DEPLOYMENT_SEGWIT, versionbitscache) ==
// SEGSIGNAL mandatory segwit signalling.
if ( VersionBitsState(pindex->pprev, chainparams.GetConsensus(),
Consensus::DEPLOYMENT_SEGSIGNAL, versionbitscache) == THRESHOLD_ACTIVE
 !IsWitnessLockedIn(pindex->pprev, chainparams.GetConsensus()) && 
// Segwit is not locked in
 !IsWitnessEnabled(pindex->pprev, chainparams.GetConsensus()) ) // 
and is not active.
bool fVersionBits = (pindex->nVersion & VERSIONBITS_TOP_MASK) == 
bool fSegbit = (pindex->nVersion & 
Consensus::DEPLOYMENT_SEGWIT)) != 0;
if (!(fVersionBits && fSegbit)) { return state.DoS(0, error("ConnectBlock(): relayed block must 
signal for segwit, please upgrade"), REJECT_INVALID, "bad-no-segwit");
==Backwards Compatibility==
This deployment is compatible with the existing "segwit" bit 1
deployment scheduled between midnight November 15th, 2016 and midnight
November 15th, 2017. Miners will need to upgrade their nodes to
support segsignal otherwise they may build on top of an invalid block.
While this bip is active users should either upgrade to segsignal or
wait for additional confirmations when accepting payments.
Historically we have used IsSuperMajority() to activate soft forks
such as BIP66 which has a mandatory signalling requirement for miners
once activated, this ensures that miners are aware of new rules being
enforced. This technique can be leveraged to lower the signalling
threshold of a soft fork while it is in the process of being deployed
in a backwards compatible way.
By orphaning non-signalling blocks during the BIP9 bit 1 "segwit"
deployment, this BIP can cause the existing "segwit" deployment to
activate without needing to release a new deployment.
Mailing list discussion]
P2SH flag day activation]
*[[bip-0009.mediawiki|BIP9 Version bits with timeout and delay]]
*[[bip-0016.mediawiki|BIP16 Pay to Script Hash]]
*[[bip-0141.mediawiki|BIP141 Segregated Witness (Consensus layer)]]
*[[bip-0143.mediawiki|BIP143 Transaction Signature Verification for
Version 0 Witness Program]]
*[[bip-0147.mediawiki|BIP147 Dealing with dummy stack element malleability]]
*[[bip-0148.mediawiki|BIP148 Mandatory activation of segwit deployment]]
*[[bip-0149.mediawiki|BIP149 Segregated Witness (second deployment)]]
*[https://bitcoincore.org/en/2016/01/26/segwit-benefits/ Segwit benefits]
This document is dual licensed as BSD 3-clause, and Creative Commons
CC0 1.0 Universal.
original: https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2017-May/014380.html
submitted by dev_list_bot to bitcoin_devlist [link] [comments]

A full explanation of what Antpool is doing, how it harms the network, and what should be done (if anything) to make it irrelevant.

Hey bitcoin
I saw a lot of people with the same questions about AntPool and what's happening. I had to dig hard to find halfway decent answers at times, and other times there was some hefty misinformation and unwarranted FUD in some corners. This is instead, a full explanation of what is happening and why you should and shouldn't be worried.

Why is AntPool mining tiny blocks?
This is an attack of sorts on bitcoin, but not in a straightforward manner. There is no immediate increase of fees because these blocks exist. In fact, all it means is that currently the network is mining with hashrate:
H - A 
where H is the total hashrate and A is the hashrate of AntPool. AntPool doesn't change the overall hashrate of those cooperating with Bitcoin.

If it doesn't effect transaction fees or times, why should I be worried?
The long-term stability of the network is where this attack comes into play. The difficulty is re-targeted every 2016 blocks to make sure the difficulty stays as close to 10 minutes as possible. The AntPool blocks, despite their lack of transaction processing, will be included in this count. That means that as long as there are malicious miners, the effective transaction throughput will be:
10 min * (H / (H - A)) 
This is after re-targeting and if the attack has been going on for the entire 2016 block timeframe.

Is this economically viable for miners?
Perhaps, but to be a miner on AntPool, you'd have to be pretty much all-in on the other side of the chain with substantial holdings. The block reward is currently 12.5 bitcoin and there are around 4 bitcoin in transaction fees per block.
if you decide to mine sub-optimally, you miss out on around $16k USD of effective reward for the transaction fees alone. That one block alone isn't going to vastly change the price, but mining a high percentage of blocks throughout the re-targeting period will. Let's say they effectively manage to mine 20% of blocks, that would be a transaction cost loss of around USD $6 Million for a mere 20% loss of network hashrate. While the network will be slower, you'd have to hold tens to hundreds of thousands of coins on the alternate chain for this attack to be viable.

I noticed that AntPool doesn't always mine empty blocks, what gives?
I noticed the same thing. Check over here: https://blockchain.info/blocks
Sometimes AntPool mines a full block, sometimes they mine a partial block, and somtimes they mine an empty block.
There's a chance that AntPool found a way to optimize hash hits by cycling number of transactions first instead of the nonce variable. (I can't for the life of me see how this optimization would be any quicker.) In any case, if this is what's happening, then the average AntPool block would be half as large as the average.
The more likely possibility is that AntPool has 2 different versions of the mining software where you can opt-in to being malicious or they can turn it on and off at will or some systems had a mining error that fails to process transactions but still hashes.

What can be done?
Honestly, I don't think this will be a problem long-term. It's just (probably) not economically viable unless AntPool is trying to get enough miners off the main chain to take it over and run a 50% attack... Which will be very hard and still economically costly. If AntPool continues sub-optimal mining, a lot of miners will likely leave for a better (honest) pool.

If this becomes a serious problem, what should be done?
Honestly, adding a check-able hashed variable like:
to each block would be as ideal as possible. The check algorithm could have a pool factor like 1.5 or 2 so a few non-propagated transactions don't pull a false negative. This could even eat a bit of the signature field to keep block size the exact same.
if(isMemFull = 1 && memPoolSize >= 1.5Mb) {acceptBlock()}; if(isMemFull = 0) {acceptBlock()}; else {rejectBlock()}; 
The only difference is if the 1.5 or 2 factor is met in a local transaction pool, the miner would reject blocks with a 0 in the field.
When recalculating difficulty, the network would not count non-full blocks where the bit is set towards the difficulty. This would mean that the only time the difficulty could be tampered with is when the mempool is 1Mb - 2Mb (max)

Wouldn't that require a hard-fork?
I unfortunately can't envision a way to implement without hard-forking, but the massive upside to this is that the difficulty of the (new) main chain would be lower overall so that miners who don't cooperate would be increasingly squeezed out of the old chain.
The good news is... it likely doesn't matter. I'm relatively certain AntPool will have to mine at an economic deficit for too long for it to have any net positive for them.

Edit 2
After thinking more about it, the new chain would still be valid on the other side - especially if old data locations were used such as the LSB of sig. Technically, this WOULD only be a soft fork because the older systems that find a block would have to orphan and swap to the new chain when they inevitably encounter a longer chain.
user69213 may have a point that dummy transactions may be used in attack. I'll have to look back into how and when transactions are validated, but I think he does have a point. Still, other changes would also be sufficient to overcome this hurtle like PoW. (Although ASIC miners won't be happy about that and it would be a definitive hard-fork)

TL;DR: What AntPool is doing will likely have no long-term effect on Bitcoin, and if it does, there are at least some ways to make it not matter.
Edit - Minor Text Fixes
submitted by CaptainPatent to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Top 5 Next Best and Promising Cryptocurrency to Invest in 2018

Top 5 Next Best and Promising Cryptocurrency to Invest in 2018 BY https://managingyourfinance.com/top-5-best-and-promising-cryptocurrency-to-invest-in-2018
2017 has been a good year for the cryptocurrency space. Although the technology is relatively new, cryptocurrency is already making waves in multiple industries. The increased demand for cryptocurrency surged its prices significantly and many have made good profits from investing in cryptocurrency. Wondering what’s the next cryptocurrency to invest in 2018 besides Bitcoin? Here, MYF team has shortlisted the top 5 best and promising cryptocurrency to invest in 2018.
Before you dive into investing cryptocurrency, you need to understand what it is in the first place. You could read more about cryptocurrency on What Is Cryptocurrency for Dummies | How Cryptocurrency Works?
Top 5 Best and Promising Cryptocurrency to Invest in 2018
Disclaimer: This article should not be taken and viewed as investment advice, but only information and opinions. This article is for information and illustrative purposes only.
This article was published on 4th December 2017
Top 5 Best and Promising Cryptocurrency to Invest in 2018


According to World Economic Forum, the number of people worldwide that do not have access to bank accounts amounts to over two (2) billion. This number represents around 35%% of our rapidly increasing population. What are the drawbacks of not having a bank account and what OmiseGo is trying to solve?
No international payments; Have to carry a large amount of cash on you; If you are robbed, everything can be stolen (financially); Ease of transactions is reduced; and Narrow investment avenues OmiseGo can see this problem, especially in the economically developing countries and they aim to use blockchain technology to solve this problem.
The payment processing industry is huge, with payment processors moving over $3.6 trillion per year. The largest processors are companies like VISA, Mastercard, Alipay and Wechat who each process billions each day. The problem with current payment companies is they operate in a centralized database model, they don’t communicate with each other.
A company owns a private database, which is a library of data, stocked on a computer or on many computers called servers. There are three problems with the traditional centralized database model:-
Security; Privacy; and Trust. The idea behind OmiseGo is to solve the above-mentioned problems. The statistics have shown the fact that there are hundreds of million people in Asia, and 2 billion people worldwide, are unbanked. OmiseGO wants to provide unbanked people with an easy, open solution allowing them to own, send, receive money on a dematerialized form, whatever currency or asset they want to send, and at a minimal cost.
OmiseGO wants to provide users and merchants with a universal, decentralized solution, making it easy and cost less to send money from any network to any network, agnostically among currencies or asset types, and countries and jurisdictions.
What is hindering OmiseGo?
While the blockchain has many very positive aspects compared to the traditional centralized database model, it still has a scalability problem that needs to be solved.
OmiseGo already aiming to be compliant with the Plasma scaling proposals. Buterin has a close relationship with the development of OMG, so it would seem to be a legitimate expectation that this project will indeed deliver the goods.
Plasma is a solution co-developed by Joseph Poon and Vitalik Buterin, both key advisors of the OmiseGO project, that allows an extreme scalability, potentially billions of state updates per second.
Who’s Behind OmiseGo? OmiseGo stands out because it is being developed by a well-established company, Omise that was founded in 2013 and is a venture-backed payments company operating in Thailand, Japan, Singapore, and Indonesia. It provides an online payment solution already used by thousands of customers.
The OmiseGo team consists of Omise core team and well-known blockchain developers. The advisors are the strongest part of OmiseGo project because they almost all are from Ethereum foundation.
Other than the lead team working on OmiseGo, the following are all officially advising the project: Vitalik Buterin (ETH lead ) , Dr. Gavin Wood (ETH and Parity lead) , Vlad Zamfir (CaspeETH lead), Joseph Poon (Lightning Net lead) and Roger Ver of The Internet of Money as well as many others, including a professor of Quantitative Finance. I am not aware of any other BC project that has such a list of advisors of this caliber.
Some of the key investors in Omise include SBI Investment, SMBC, Ascend Capital, SMDV, Golden Gate Ventures, and East Ventures.
Why Invest in OmiseGo?
OmiseGo has released a roadmap for 2017 / 2018 year that shows various features and enhancements that will be to OMG users. In Q4 2017, first wallet SDK prototype will be released for workshop testing and development. This is followed by the release of wallet SDK public release in Q1 2018.
After that, public blockchain will be released to the OMG users which will make staking possible. Then in Q3 2018, cash in/out touchpoint interface with payment gateway will be released.
Plasma development and introduction are expected to be done in Q3 2018 as well.
Hence, 2018 will be the year of OmiseGo. Definitely, OmiseGo is the next cryptocurrency to invest in 2018.
Top 5 Best and Promising Cryptocurrency to Invest in 2018


Litecoin is one of the best cryptocurrencies alternatives to Bitcoins that was designed to manage some of the issues that could be holding Bitcoin back. It is also one of the first altcoins in existence after Bitcoin. In fact, Litecoin was actually one of the first forks of Bitcoin. Unlike Segwit2x, it was not a hostile or contentious fork that sought to replace Bitcoin.
It was introduced 2011 (BTC in 2009) and it is almost identical to Bitcoin. So any trust and adoption rate of Bitcoin should bleed over to Litecoin.
Though it isn’t quite as innovative as Ethereum, it still has potential. Litecoin’s value is derived entirely from user adoption, and there’s also a difference in leadership for the companies involved too.
Litecoin was created by an ex-Google employee called Charlie Lee, who’s entirely transparent on social media about what he’s doing with the currency. Charlie is still leading its development and very active in the cryptocurrency community.
Litecoin is very similar to Bitcoin, but through tweaking to the settings, it is technically a superior algorithm. Although both Litecoin and Bitcoin are quite similar, there are some differences that differentiate both of them (see infographic)
Top 5 Best and Promising Cryptocurrency to Invest in 2018
Why Are The Key Advantages of Litecoin Over Bitcoin?
Faster transaction times. Litecoin can produce blocks for its blockchain much faster than Bitcoin. In fact, it only takes Litecoin 2.5 minutes to complete one block (or transaction). It takes Bitcoin 10 minutes; Less expensive transactions. First to successfully implement Lightning network for instant, zero-fee transactions. Litecoin also has a far simpler algorithm. It doesn’t take as much energy or time to mine Litecoin; First to complete a cross-chain atomic swap (with Decred). In the process of adding confidential transactions; and Faster to adopt new technology, without community infighting over upgrades. Bitcoin’s community can hardly agree on anything, a fact that we’ve been keenly observing with the chaos surrounding the previously proposed “fork.” Why Invest in Litecoin?
Litecoin’s scrypt hashing algorithm makes it easier for miners to access the system.This could cause a couple of things. First, it could encourage more novice miners to participate in the Litecoin system. This will help with widespread Litecoin usage since many users will be miners that never got a chance to mine Bitcoin.
Charlie Lee has ambitious plans for Litecoin. The arrangements have already been made for the Lightning Network to be introduced soon to reduce the transaction speed even further. Litecoin developers are also scheduled to add the Lightning Network to the Litecoin platform which is expected to improve the scalability of transactions and to investigate the feasibility of anonymous smart contracts.
If Litecoin successfully goes ahead with all the planned updates, then the market may respond to it positively.


Ethereum is another of the most popular solutions for cryptocurrency investors today and it will continue in 2018.
Designed by a programmer called Vitalik Buterin, Ethereum works in an entirely different way to Bitcoin. Though it can do many of the same things that Bitcoin can do, its primary purpose is to act as a platform for building decentralized applications.
The biggest difference between Bitcoin and Ethereum is the use of blockchains. While Bitcoin’s blockchain records contracts, showing how digital funds have moved from one place to another, Etherum has expanded this concept. The Ethereum blockchain uses a far more complex scripting language, and its smart contracts can form complex applications that have a broad range of potential uses.
Developers have recently started to take notice of the potential that Ethereum can offer, building projects on top of the cryptocurrency. Some individuals have even used Ethereum to raise millions of dollars through crowd sales known as ICOs, and the trend remains strong today. This makes Ethereum a powerful option for those invested in finance. However, the popularity of the currency means that the price has skyrocketed.
Why Invest in Ethereum?
Vitalik Buterin, Ethereum’s creator, recently released an implementation guide that reveals the network’s developers will first start with a ‘hybrid’ system that merges bitcoin-style proof-of-work mining with its much-anticipated and still-experimental proof-of-stake system called Casper, created by Buterin.
With Casper, the name of the game is long-term sustainable scaling. For the Ethereum network to be able to achieve mainstream adoption, it needs to be able to handle extremely large amounts of transactions in seconds. To this end, Casper is designed to help Ethereum achieve this much-need, large-scale network scalability.
A highly anticipated update to the Ethereum network could be happening before schedule according to developers. The Casper update may be rolled out as early as the next hard-fork, Constantinople instead of previous plans for it to come with Serenity, the last development phase, in 2018.
There is no fixed date for Constantinople yet but it should be towards the end of this year or early 2018 according to the planned Ethereum development phase, or roadmap called Metropolis. The previous hard-fork, Byzantium, was the fifth for Ethereum which went through without a hitch on October 16.
Ethereum would survive a bear market like Bitcoin saw in 2014-2016 because of its Community. Ethereum has the second largest one just behind Bitcoin and people using the platform are not all speculator. They are developers, entrepreneurs, creators and they would keep on using it no matter what the price of an Ether is.
There are two other fundamental issues beyond scalability that Casper will be focused on tackling:
Censorship: currently, Bitcoin miners enjoy a zero-sum game dynamic—if a miner’s block is censored/gets lost, then every single one of their competitor miners benefit accordingly. Ethereum’s PoS will shift the network to a “coordination game” dynamic, wherein everyone benefits more if all miners’ blocks get included on the chain. Costs: through Ethereum’s current PoW protocol, satisfactory security can only be maintained through high operating costs. Casper will ease this dynamic, by making it so honest validators can cheaply validate while attackers’ costs are conversely extremely expensive. The Casper update will be a blockbuster update that will fundamentally change the way the Ethereum network functions, of course, greatly for the better, the network’s developers hope.


Internet of Things (IoT) holds one of the biggest potentials for human life change. It might become the fastest growing market in next couple years but the more important thing is that the development in related areas is interconnecting.
Using smartwatch and collect data from our morning run is what we experience today, but in couple years there will be interconnected every single device we use and all machines will communicate to each other.
Since we imagine such a world with billions of devices, machines, and humans that are communicating with each other, we are facing a huge problem with actual infrastructure and hardware/software standards. In other words, scaling will cause problems.
IOTA is a new cryptocurrency that focused on Machine-2-Machine (M2M) transactions. The main purpose of IOTA is to serve the machine economy by enabling feeless M2M (Machine-to-Machine) payments. IOTA is a new currency that enables a machine-to-machine economy that powers the Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure. It’s radically different from other cryptos because it doesn’t even use blockchain for its transactions.
Instead, it uses a completely new concept called the tangle.
Tangle is an acyclic directed graph. It looks like a web, which is unlike the blockchain. Each transaction is confirmed by only two other nodes. So, IOTA allows for
Unlimited scalability. The more people adopt IOTA, the faster its transactions work. No transaction fees. True microtransactions are possible (because of no transaction fees). Top 5 Best and Promising Cryptocurrency to Invest in 2018
Why Invest in IOTA (MIOTA)?
We personally love the concept and we think it would take off heavily post 2018 and 2019 as more IoT and artificially intelligent (AI) devices become prevalent.
Bitcoin, having been created in 2009 and distributed to hundreds of thousands of computers around the world, is starting to become well understood. There are certainly many areas we need to explore, but certain things like blockchain security have been tested globally and have yet to file.
In addition, Bitcoin is being tested in many other ways, like in scalability and performance in different environments. This has given people a better understanding of the technology and more confidence in what it can or can’t do.
Tangle, on the other hand, has only been in existence since late 2016 in mainnet and is not as widely adopted as blockchain. There’s a lot left to be proven about the technology and it just needs the time to prove itself. Until then, we shouldn’t just ‘assume’ the tech works as expected, but watch it carefully and understand what it excels at and where it fails.
Afterall, if you know its potential, this technology naturally succeeds the blockchain technology as its next evolutionary step and comes out with features required for micropayments conducted on a global scale.
The team behind IOTA has been growing as of late and counts with many experienced individuals. If everything goes well, and if the team is able to accomplish their plans, then the sky is the limit for IOTA. We could be on a brink of seeing a superior technology to the blockchain.
Top 5 Best and Promising Cryptocurrency to Invest in 2018

5 Raiden Network

Like every other blockchain, Ethereum intends to support as many users as it can. At present Ethereum can support only 13 transactions per second and that is relatively lower than Visa and Mastercard. Both Visa and Mastercard can process 4,000 transactions per second.
In order to get Ethereum on a mass adoption, Raiden proposes to provide an easy to use conduit for off-chain (i.e. not on the Ethereum blockchain) payments without the need of trust among the involved parties. This is done by broadcasting transactions on the blockchain only during settlements, and not at each individual transaction between the two parties.
It is similar to the Off-chain Segregated Witness Lightning Network for bitcoin. Inspired by bitcoin’s Lightning Network, the technology would shift the majority of transactions off of the ethereum blockchain to create an alternate network of peer-to-peer payment channels.
Raiden network is an open source project, developed primarily by a company called Brainbot Technologies. From the GitHub repository, the project has been under development since September 2015, or not long after the Ethereum blockchain was live.
The Raiden Network is currently under development and will drastically improve the speed of Ethereum Transactions. The Raiden Network can be applied across a wide range of areas, including content distribution, IoT sector, frictionless token systems, and decentralized exchanges. Additionally, it can be used to access and monetize APIs what is at the core of the machine-to-machine market.
In September 2017, the testnet for the Raiden Network was a major milestone for the project, one that will lead to the next phase of development before the code is ready to launch on the live Ethereum network.
What are the advantages of Raiden Network?
Allows Micro-payments thanks to lower fees (7 times lower than current Blockchain transaction fees); Fast and scalable therefore able to handle the high volume from the micro-transactions; Works with variable tokens as long as they follow Ethereum’s Standard Token API; and Confidential because the single transfers are recorded in a smart contract stored off the public ledger (Off-chain). Why Invest in Raiden Network (RDN)?
Raiden currently consists of three independent projects: µRaiden, Raiden Network, and Raidos. There is a working implementation of µRaiden, which will be deployed on the Ethereum main net shortly.
A developer preview will be released soon and allow Dapp developers to get a first impression of the API and the properties of the system, also enable them to build prototypes that interact with the Raiden Ropsten-based test network. In its current state, the technology is not ready for production use. Significant tooling and even changes to the core protocol still need to be developed.
Raidos is currently only in its planning phase and development has not been kicked off yet.
Mainstream applications for the Raiden network are not hard to find. The Lightning network is not expected to go live anytime soon, whereas Raiden will become a part of the Ethereum ecosystem maybe early 2018.
Many Ethereum users will be willing to pay a small fee to access the Raiden Network. It is one of the few blockchain based projects which will have hundreds of thousands of users as soon as it is launched.
submitted by Electomatic to CryptocurrencyOffers [link] [comments]

What is Bitcoin for dummies - A simple explanation for ... Bitcoin Basics (Part 1) - What is Bitcoin? Bitcoin Explained Simply for Dummies ... Passwords & hash functions (Simply Explained) - YouTube Forma más fácil de entender bitcoin for dummies, hash y blockchain

Hash Rate. The hash rate is the measuring unit of the processing power of the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin network must make intensive mathematical operations for security purposes. When the network reached a hash rate of 10 Th/s, it meant it could make 10 trillion calculations per second. Mining. Bitcoin mining is the process of making computer hardware do mathematical calculations for the ... Bitcoin is effectively a much-needed alternative for this potentially Orwellian future where governments are able to surveil all financial activity, tell people who they can and can’t transact with, and easily steal from individuals through bail-ins or the inflation tax. In summary, bitcoin is important because it creates an alternate financial system that will allow individuals to freely ... Bitcoin Mining for Dummies – How Bitcoins are Mined. Marc Kenigsberg - July 9, 2018 . One of the most common questions about Bitcoin and one of the most misunderstood is the idea of mining for Bitcoins. This article will explain how Bitcoin mining works in plain and simple English. The first thing we need to address is what actually is Bitcoin? Does it exist anywhere physically? Mining for ... Bitcoin is everywhere these days. If you’re late the party, then worry not. CoinRevolution has got you covered. This is our ultimate guide to everything Bitcoin. Each section will walk you through exactly what Bitcoin is, how it works, and where you can get some. You’ll also learn how to buy, sell, trade, shop, mine Bitcoin — as well as where to discuss it all further. Hash functions in bitcoin. In the bitcoin protocol, hash functions are part of the block hashing algorithm which is used to write new transactions into the blockchain through the mining process ...

[index] [35270] [22532] [13404] [9733] [15079] [30589] [1363] [42825] [45808] [26467]

What is Bitcoin for dummies - A simple explanation for ...

Bitcoin für Anfänger einfach erklärt! [auf Deutsch] Bitcoin-Börse (erhalte 10€ in BTC) https://finanzfluss.de/go/bitcoin-boerse *📱 Sicheres Bitcoin-Wallet... Bitcoin and cryptocurrency mining explained with the Byzantine Generals Problem. We use it to explain the essence of cryptocurrency mining. https://www.udemy... Some Helpful Links: • Buy Parts for a Mining Rig: http://amzn.to/2jSSsCz • Download NiceHash Miner: https://www.nicehash.com/?p=nhmintro • Choose a Wallet: h... Start trading Bitcoin and cryptocurrency here: http://bit.ly/2Vptr2X Bitcoin is the first decentralized digital currency. All Bitcoin transactions are docume... What is Bitcoin - A simple non technical explanation about the concept of Bitcoin for beginners. For the complete text guide visit: http://bit.ly/2DvHagt Joi...