5da4bcb997a90bec188542365365d8b913af3f1eb7deaf55038cfcd04f0b11a0(that’s 64 hexadecimal characters – each character represents 4-bits. 64 x 4 bits = 256bit = 32 bytes)
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFAnd the lowest is:
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000The goal in Proof-of-Work systems is to look for a hash that is lower than a specific target, i.e. starts with a specific number of leading zeros. This target is what determines the difficulty.
00000000FFFF0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000A block of difficulty 1/256 (0.00390625) must have a hash lower than:
000000FFFF000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000And a block of difficulty 256 must have a hash lower than:
0000000000FFFF00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000So the higher the difficulty, the lower the hash must be; therefore more work must be completed to find the block.
000000000001909c000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000The achieve finding this, a single miner would need to have completed, on average 179,867,219,848,013 hashes (calculated by taking the number of hashes needed for a difficulty 1 block - 4,294,967,296 or 2 ^ 32 or 16 ^ 8 – and multiplied by the difficulty). Of course, our single miner may have found this sooner – or later – than predicted.
“the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog”If we perform a SHA256 hash of this, it results in:
05c6e08f1d9fdafa03147fcb8f82f124c76d2f70e3d989dc8aadb5e7d7450becIf we change a single character in the input string (in this case we will replace the ‘o’ in ‘over’ to a zero), the resulting hash becomes:
Current hash rate: 261,900,382 GH/s
Number of transactions per day: 71,331
If we assume rather conservatively that 1GH/s = 1 watt on average, then this would mean 261,900,382W is being used to power the network. We can simplify this to 261,900 kW.
Some miners can do better than 1W per 1GH/s, but many if not most do worse (i.e. 2W per 1GH/s to 10W per 1GH/s).
Going by the figure of 0.527kg CO2 / kWh found on this page,
0.527kg CO2 x 261,900 kW x 24 hours = 3,312,511.2 kg CO2 per day
3,312,511.2 kg CO2 / 71,331 transactions = 46.44 kg CO2 per transaction
For comparison, even going by this Coindesk Article, an ATM produces daily 3.162kg in CO2 emissions.
0.25kwH x 0.527kg CO2 x 24 hours = 3.162kg/day.
That means that the carbon emission for one Bitcoin transaction is equivalent to about 15 ATMs processing perhaps hundreds or thousands of transactions in a day combined.
Right, there's a bunch of circlejerking happening in /Bitcoin right now so I think it's time to cut through the bullshit one way or another.
Country to send money to.
The biggest remittance markets are China, Indian and the Philippines.
I believe that since /Bitcoin often gives the Philippines as an example of successful Bitcoin remittance then it is the perfect country to use in our challenge.
Country to send money from.
According to this wikipedia article Malaysia and Canada have the biggest expat Filipino communities. 900,000 and 500,000.
So I think we should do the calculations based on both countries.
Most people are not paid in Bitcoin. This is a fact. So for our calculation you must start with fiat, and end in fiat. We're not doing these calculations based on future utility of Bitcoin (No, neo. I'm saying...), we're doing them on the current utility.
We will also be doing a bank to bank remittance, because that is nice an constant. We don't need to take into account pick up locations Bitcoin remittance allows and pick up locations normal remittance allows. They'll vary too much.
Time will also not be taken into account, as time doesn't actually matter when it comes to remittance. Now, Bitcoiners might shout about this particular rule but let me explain my logic behind this.
A foreign worker gets paid every Friday. They start the remittance process on the Friday and regardless of if it takes 0, 3, or 5 days their family back in their home country just needs to base their life around money coming in on remitters pay day + 0, 3, or 5 days. Time taken is of no real value when it comes to remittance. All that matters is that it consistently arrives on day x.
As such, any remittance services that take over 5 working days are to be ignored for the sake of this challenge.
The amount is going to be 25% of the average wage in each of the countries. This isn't extremely scientific because it doesn't particularly need to be, and the figures are hard to come by.
So 1826.75 MYR for Malaysia and 1,398 CAD for Canada.
Don't bother complaining about these, they're just examples.
Few more ground rules
- We're going to be going from bank/bank card to bank regardless, so we're not interested in banking fees on either side. They will be the same regardless of Bitcoin or WU (for example)
- It must be from local fiat to foreign fiat.. You can't palm off the conversion fee to the receivers bank to keep fees down.
- Any remittance service can be used, as long as Bitcoin is involved for people fighting the Bitcoin corner and Bitcoin isn't used for people fighting the WU (or similar) corner.
- You must go through the process and document all the fees for each. Fees to look out for are currency spreads, transaction fees on exchanges, etc
The average number of transactions per block right now is: 665 transactions
The average block size is 0.372731752748842mb.
That means the average transaction is 0.00056049887mb. Which means 1mb of transactions (the limit) is 1784 transactions
Assuming a 10 minute block (a whole other can of worms) that means there is 10*60 seconds.
1784/600 isn't 7. It's a 2.97.
Bitcoin at a technical level can not handle even 3 transactions per second.
On the transaction side: the Bitcoin community seems convinced that banks are ripping them off (which imo they are not), and that it can be fixed by applying some magicsauce over a transaction that is facilitated by banks regardless. So far in practice I haven't seen any evidence of the 'fast' 'cheap' and 'easy' transactions, like most recently with Mollie. They usually compare the fees of BTC>BTC transactions to the fees of Chase Mastercard > a fucking nomad in the Sahara (with consumer protection) to prove their point. The community also seems convinced that the entire world banks the way America does, not realizing that in Europe banking has been dirt cheap for years.
And the security... oh boy the security. Half the population can't manage to go without a virus for one year (not an actual statistic), and now you expect them to secure their coins? People are dumb as shit, and software is always one step behind the exploits. We could of course create Bitcoin banks, but then there isn't much left of the original idea.
On the 'intrinsic value' side: what the hell is wrong with people. If the underlying product is no good in any aspect, why is it worth much? Right now (that's like 5 years after introduction mind you) BTC is used in 3 types of transactions: Silk Road, SatoshiDice & extremely questionable transactions. It does its job well in that aspect, and that's all it will ever be. The community just turned the technology into a giant ponzi, and they don't care as long as they get paid. The people actually doing business in Bitcoin probably don't care about the price that much.
That's just an excuse butters use for the price going down.
There's no real difference between selling bitcoin for fiat and exchanging bitcoin for goods and services. Both are a form of sale of bitcoin, an expression of preference for something other than bitcoin.
If on balance, there's more flow of bitcoin into fiat, goods or services than there is a corresponding opposing flow, then it is simply the market expressing the view that bitcoin is overvalued. Therefore, the reduction in the value of bitcoin (as valued in fiat) is a sincere expression of the market's view of what the correct price for bitcoin is.
Think of an example: A true believer has 20 BTC. He exchanges 10 BTC with Dell for a whizzy server. Dell (or another intermediary) sell the 10 BTC at an exchange in return for fiat. The market price of BTC goes down.
The price goes down, simply because a true believer cut his bitcoin holding, he got out. He thought having a server now was worth more to him than 10 tickets to the moon. Which is an expression of a negative view of the future value of bitcoin. A simple "aggressive" sale in trading parlance.
My understanding is that "Satoshi" had been trying to solve the technical problem of convincing a bunch of anonymous, volunteers to maintain and protect a distributed ledger, with no central authority.
He thought that he had a solution, in the form of a protocol that included PoW, miner rewards, longest chain, etc. The solution seemed to work on paper; but, as a good scientist, he started an experiment in order to check whether it would also work in practice.
For that experiment to be meaningful, it would have been enough if the coin was mined for several years only by a few hundred computer nerds, with the cooperation of some friendly pizza places and bars.
The US$ price of the coin was not important to the experiment, and it was never meant to be a weapon for libertarians, a way to buy drugs or evade taxes, a competitor to credit cards or Western Union, a sound investment or item for day-trading. All those "goals" were tacked onto it afterwards.
It gets even better than that, actually. A lot of bitcoiners don't like 'losing' bitcoin, and so coinbase added a popular 'repurchase bitcoin' feature that automatically debits your bank account to replenish the BTC in your coinbase account after a purchase.
The ultimate result then is that you pay coinbase fiat, they take their cut, and then send that fiat on to the merchant. All 'bitcoins' used in the middle of the transaction are not really bitcoins, but just abstractions in coinbase's internal [off-chain] accounting system.
It's a crap version of paypal, no consumer protection and a ton of fees hidden in the spread when you buy your chuck-e-cheese tokens from them.
Most people understand that there are different sorts of interaction. There are purely social interactions, there are quid-pro-quo interactions, and there are market interactions. Mixing those up causes embarrassment and insult. I wouldn't try to pay my mother-in-law ten bucks for cooking Christmas dinner, and I certainly wouldn't try to pay her ten cents. If a waiter suggests I try the raspberry tart, I won't get away with offering to bake him some cookies next week in compensation; if an office mate suggests I have a slice of her birthday cake, I'll be insulted if she brings me a bill for it. If I spend an hour helping my friend move apartments and he thanks me, I'm fine; we're friends helping each other out. If he pays me two bucks, I'm insulted; he's canceled the social nature of the interaction and instead simply bought my labor for a fraction of its going rate. I'm up two bucks but down a friend.
Ancapspergers, not particularly understanding any sort of interaction more complicated than buying a cheeseburger at Wendy's, assume that all interactions are a form of market transaction, and set pricing accordingly. Normal humans get offended by a penny shaving, because it cancels the social nature of the interaction and turns it into a market transaction--and then informs the recipient that his contribution to the transaction was of negligible value.
https://preview.redd.it/5r9soz2ltq421.jpg?width=268&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6a89685f735b53ec1573eefe08c8646970de8124submitted by Josephbitcoin to u/Josephbitcoin [link] [comments]
What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is an experimental system of transfer and verification of property based on a network of peer to peer without any central authority.
The initial application and the main innovation of the Bitcoin network is a system of digital currency decentralized unit of account is bitcoin.
Bitcoin works with software and a protocol that allows participants to issue bitcoins and manage transactions in a collective and automatic way. As a free Protocol (open source), it also allows interoperability of software and services that use it. As a currency bitcoin is both a medium of payment and a store of value.
Bitcoin is designed to self-regulate. The limited inflation of the Bitcoin system is distributed homogeneously by computing the network power, and will be limited to 21 million divisible units up to the eighth decimal place. The functioning of the Exchange is secured by a general organization that everyone can examine, because everything is public: the basic protocols, cryptographic algorithms, programs making them operational, the data of accounts and discussions of the developers.
The possession of bitcoins is materialized by a sequence of numbers and letters that make up a virtual key allowing the expenditure of bitcoins associated with him on the registry. A person may hold several key compiled in a 'Bitcoin Wallet ', 'Keychain' web, software or hardware which allows access to the network in order to make transactions. Key to check the balance in bitcoins and public keys to receive payments. It contains also (often encrypted way) the private key associated with the public key. These private keys must remain secret, because their owner can spend bitcoins associated with them on the register. All support (keyrings) agrees to maintain the sequence of symbols constituting your keychain: paper, USB, memory stick, etc. With appropriate software, you can manage your assets on your computer or your phone.
Bitcoin on an account, to either a holder of bitcoins in has given you, for example in Exchange for property, either go through an Exchange platform that converts conventional currencies in bitcoins, is earned by participating in the operations of collective control of the currency.
The sources of Bitcoin codes have been released under an open source license MIT which allows to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the software, subject to insert a copyright notice into all copies.
Bitcoin creator, Satoshi Nakamoto
What is the Mining of bitcoin?
Technical details :
During mining, your computer performs cryptographic hashes (two successive SHA256) on what is called a header block. For each new hash, mining software uses a different random number that called Nuncio. According to the content of the block and the nonce value typically used to express the current target. This number is called the difficulty of mining. The difficulty of mining is calculated by comparing how much it is difficult to generate a block compared to the first created block. This means that a difficulty of 70000 is 70000 times more effort that it took to Satoshi Nakamoto to generate the first block. Where mining was much slower and poorly optimized.
The difficulty changes each 2016 blocks. The network tries to assign the difficulty in such a way that global computing power takes exactly 14 days to generate 2016 blocks. That's why the difficulty increases along with the power of the network.
In the beginning, mining with a processor (CPU) was the only way to undermine bitcoins. (GPU) graphics cards have possibly replaced the CPU due to their nature, which allowed an increase between 50 x to 100 x in computing power by using less electricity by megahash compared to a CPU.
Although any modern GPU can be used to make the mining, the brand AMD GPU architecture has proved to be far superior to nVidia to undermine bitcoins and the ATI Radeon HD 5870 card was the most economical for a time.
For a more complete list of graphics cards and their performance, see Wiki Bitcoin: comparison of mining equipment
In the same way that transition CPU to GPU, the world of mining has evolved into the use of the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) as a mining platform. Although FPGAs did not offer an increase of 50 x to 100 x speed of calculation as the transition from CPU to GPU, they offered a better energy efficiency.
A typical HD/s 600 graphics card consumes about 400w of power, while a typical FPGA device can offer a rate of hash of 826 MH/s to 80w of power consumption, a gain of 5 x more calculations for the same energy power. Since energy efficiency is a key factor in the profitability of mining, it was an important step for the GPU to FPGA migration for many people.
The world of the mining of bitcoin is now migrating to the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). An ASIC is a chip designed specifically to accomplish a single task. Unlike FPGAs, an ASIC is unable to be reprogrammed for other tasks. An ASIC designed to undermine bitcoins cannot and will not do anything else than to undermine bitcoins.
The stiffness of an ASIC allows us to offer an increase of 100 x computing power while reducing power consumption compared to all other technologies. For example, a classic device to offer 60 GH/s (1 hashes equals 1000 Megahash. 1GH/s = 1000 Mh/s) while consuming 60w of electricity. Compared to the GPU, it is an increase in computing power of 100 x and a reduction of power consumption by a factor of 7.
Unlike the generations of technologies that have preceded the ASIC, ASIC is the "end of the line" when we talk about important technology change. The CPUs have been replaced by the GPUs, themselves replaced by FPGAs that were replaced by ASICs.
There is nothing that can replace the ASICs now or in the immediate future. There will be technological refinements in ASIC products, and improvements in energy efficiency, but nothing that may match increased from 50 x to 100 x the computing power or a 7 x reduction in power consumption compared with the previous technology.
Which means that the energy efficiency of an ASIC device is the only important factor of all product ASIC, since the estimated lifetime of an ASIC device is superior to the entire history of the mining of bitcoin. It is conceivable that a purchased ASIC device today is still in operation in two years if the unit still offers a profitable enough economic to keep power consumption. The profitability of mining is also determined by the value of bitcoin but in all cases, more a device has a good energy efficiency, it is profitable.
There are two ways to make mining: by yourself or as part of a team (a pool). If you are mining for yourself, you must install the Bitcoin software and configure it to JSON-RPC (see: run Bitcoin). The other option is to join a pool. There are multiple available pools. With a pool, the profit generated by any block generated by a member of the team is split between all members of the team. The advantage of joining a team is to increase the frequency and stability of earnings (this is called reduce the variance) but gains will be lower. In the end, you will earn the same amount with the two approaches. Undermine solo allows you to receive earnings huge but very infrequent, while miner with a pool can offer you small stable and steady gains.
Once you have your software configured or that you have joined a pool, the next step is to configure the mining software. The software the most populare for ASIC/FPGA/GPU currently is CGminer or a derivative designed specifically for FPGAS and ASICs, BFGMiner.
If you want a quick overview of mining without install any software, try Bitcoin Plus, a Bitcoin minor running in your browser with your CPU. It is not profitable to make serious mining, but it is a good demonstration of the principle of the mining team.
What is the multisignature protocol - this explain why INX will be an anonymous coin as Monero!submitted by InziderX to u/InziderX [link] [comments]
Although Monero added the support for the multisignature protocol several months ago, there is still a certain lack of information online on how this technology works, so we would like to fill this gap first of all. Since the process of creating a multisignature transaction is rather complicated, we decided to focus only on its most vital aspects, including the processes of creating a wallet and exchanging keys, which we believe is enough to understand the strengths and weaknesses of this technology.
We tried to make the article more readable by ditching off most of the formulas and replacing them with schemes and illustrations, so we hope it will be useful not only to experienced engineers but to beginners as well.
On the Monero blockchain, the multisignature-related features is primarily used to allow for wallets, that have multiple users — which isn’t new, as pretty much the same solution was previously implemented by other digital currencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. In a nutshell, it allows for joint ownership of tokens which are being stored in a specific wallet. Joint ownership implies each participant has full rights to the entire amount, so there’s a reasonable limitation on its disposal: every transaction must be authorized by a certain share of participants, which is set out when the wallet is created.
The total number of owners and the approval threshold define the so-called “scheme” of a wallet. For instance, a 3/3 multisig wallet has three owners who have to unanimously approve every transaction, while in case of a 2/3 wallet each owner needs just another vote to transfer funds.
As is the case with most digital currencies, the Monero blockchain relies on elliptical-curve cryptography (learn more on Wikipedia). Simply put, this encryption system is valued for its relative cryptographic strength, smaller key size, and faster execution compared to many of its peers.
Every Monero wallet employs two sets of private and public cryptographic keys, each set being comprised of a “spend key” and a “view key”. Taken together, the public view key and the public spend key of a given wallet make up the address, which is used to receive funds. The same way, adding a private view key to a public spend key will create a tracking key, which your counterparts may use to track the funds being sent to your wallet (but never the other way around, so your privacy remains safe).
As you have probably guessed, the full access to a wallet is secured by a combination of its private spend and private view keys, so your private spend key must be kept in secret.
For the sake of brevity, from here on we will use uppercase letters for public keys (i.e. ‘B’ for ‘public spend key’), and lowercase letters for private keys (i.e. ‘b’ for ‘private spend key’). To help you understand the notation used below, let’s take a look at a short formula showing how a public key is derived from a private key:
where G is a fixed point on the elliptic curve. The multiplication of a private (scalar) key by G yields a public key, which is also a point on the same curve.Multisignature in Monero
The idea behind the multisig technology is pretty straightforward: having each participant to keep only a part of a wallet’s private spend key, so that transferring funds would require approval by a number of other participants.
It’s nearly impossible for any given participant to gain control over the entire private spend key, while all of them have their own unique public spend keys, as well as copies of both private and public view keys, allowing each participant to monitor the incoming funds.
Creating a multisig wallet in Monero
Currently, the Monero software supports only N/N and N-1/N schemes. To set up an N/N multisig wallet, the users need to complete a single round of calculations, with just one additional step required for the N-1/N scheme. The process of creating a 2/2 wallet is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Creating a 2/2 multisig wallet
Firstly, the participants share all their private view and public spend keys, and then calculate their respective sums. The sum of the private view keys becomes the private view key for the new wallet, with its public view key being derived from the private one. Then, the public spent key is calculated the same way. If the N/N scheme was chosen, that’s all of it. The wallet is now created.
If users opt for the N-1/N scheme, they would still have to share their private view and public spend keys with each other, but then each participant must multiply all public spend keys received by their own private spend key. Thus, a new set of private spend keys is created, which is called “multisignature keys,” as shown in Figure 2.Figure 2. Creating a 2/3 multisig wallet
You might have noticed that in the figure above, the keys of the same color have the same value. This is because such multisignature keys have one important property expressed by the following equality:
To put it simply, when multiplying a private key by a public key, the indices can be moved as one would like without affecting the result (this is, by the way, the very property of such products that underlies the elliptic curve Diffie–Hellman key exchange protocol). This means that every multisig key is shared between exactly two participants.
To calculate a public spend key, which must be the same for all participants, each of them derives a public key from their respective multisignature key, and shares the result with others. Then the public spend key is calculated by summing the distinct values of all public multisig keys.
Now the participants only have to calculate a view key, which is done the same way as for a 2/2 wallet.
So, now that the wallet is created, let’s move on to looking at how it could be used.
To explain how to launch a multisig transaction, let’s briefly consider how Monero deals with funds transfer in general. In a very simplified form (not taking into account ring signatures and RingCT), it works like this:
Figure 3. Simplified representation of a transaction
On the right are the transaction outputs, or the money which the transaction generates, and on the left are the inputs, or the money being destroyed when said transaction is complete.
So, when Alice wants to send 1 XMR to Bob, she takes 1 XMR, plus the necessary commission, from her unspent outputs, puts it to her inputs, calculates a key image for each of them, and finally generates outputs for 1 XMR and an output key for each of them.
To complete the transaction, Bob uses his private view and public spend keys to restore the output keys for each output generated by Alice, and if there’s a match between the restored and the incoming keys, he will consider this output as intended for him.
From the network’s point of view, a multisig transaction isn’t in any sense different, although it’s a little bit more complicated to initiate. It’s usually done in several steps:
Participants exchange partial key images for all known outputs; Participants re-synchronize their wallets in order to learn its accurate balance taking into account the key images; The sender prepares the transaction, signs it, and sends it over to one of his counterparts; Each subsequent participant adds its own part of the RingCT signature; The last signer completes the creation of RingCT.Generating key images and sharing outputs
When scanning the blockchain (i.e. during the synchronization), a wallet is unable to determine whether some of the inputs are targeting its outputs, since it does not have the data to calculate key images for them, so it’s safe to say that it only accounts for incoming transactions.
In order to run a transaction correctly, a user needs to restore the key image for each of the outputs, then synchronize with the blockchain to determine which outputs have been spent, and then proceed to generating the transaction. In Figure 4, the process of restoring key images is shown as in case of a 2/3 wallet.Figure 4. Restoring key images as in case of a 2/3 wallet
Again, to put it simply, the key image for each output is calculated by summing the distinct values of all partial key images. As can be seen from the figure above, this can be done by any two participants out of three, and, most importantly, their private keys remain undisclosed during the transaction, making it impossible for a third party to restore the complete spend key and to seize control over their funds.
With this data, the initiating party can finalize the transaction, which is then sent to all confirmed participants to generate a Ring CT signature. Then, at the final stage, the transaction is signed and broadcast to the network.
Data exchange automation
The above are procedures for exchanging key parts and key images that need to be performed either once, or after each transaction is sent. In the current release of the Monero Core Wallet, these procedures are supposed to be performed manually by exchanging the necessary data on the secure communication channels (i.e. exporting the necessary data from the wallet and sending them via messengers or otherwise).
Here is an example of the procedures required to create a 2/3 wallet and sign a transaction. Each participant performs the following commands using the monero-wallet-cli utility:
Send this multisig info to all other participants, then use make_multisig threshold info1 [info2…] with others’ multisig info.
This includes the PRIVATE view key, so needs to be disclosed only to that multisig wallet’s participants:
wallet 9uKCgo: make_multisig 2 MultisigV1XQugvU4JwcwTQbKdH5qGFnavxUX54wGxNis2iN6zoLD94DahnXbyNxH1NQBp2rYRFFJCT2uiJbssHLJYEAb8X1tS5UCqTXYu3FkgRNSZt5mRNgE58iXZHPj839Pbm3ozGcXmRT6GcRMMxMjRonfYKpnPq1UyZSMN7Qr9AYin1gYyoJSh MultisigV1HVqTW8P4UNWUE8QfBaEdwDWJuXBWEPnTrKqVJiUudGG14cHREk9TKmeR9xzSs4wf4jd22mV94C2ehSViApawnpp2SpRqp19eKXLHz2JmNp7eGR6TJMt4VsDTqANRwb1FtD9weef342f5KXDRZK7iQT1MTubyHhEcFyV5aLCjjQ8owMkH
Another step is needed
Send this multisig info to all other participants, then use finalize_multisig info1 [info2…] with others’ multisig info:
wallet 9uKCgo: finalize_multisig MultisigxV1PdeMJo5rxcWTXDJ7rbyuacBseugsn2djZKKEdwvFYVmz73TvM1rBrog5bcYz5w2P6Z4jwKtzrHr7shRGo5mAShvLUxykuq5gho7gGQBCEa3JmBaY7rNHqqUaCUs1WWQi9tojZTMmCJJ4evwJzcXEDqcAd7ShwxsJtJtXdiATs54BbBfyCbwXbnDRKAtagJF36z74KJA58NgEmnHv23ZQeePCoacM MultisigxV1RTwyE53FjKPQaAn4ZMWM5hc8C92eJndpyKby4L9HpF2TUxykuq5gho7gGQBCEa3JmBaY7rNHqqUaCUs1WWQi9tojVbYtBdQNhQsizMb51K7iaWQB4te5mQaiB1cok84CbvA928U2yJFK86jNxtMopxHkcnYjjeYfp8TAB53Y1CukBiHfL2M4EztDALXLReXjJxkMry65Jw6vVePJp2T5CW8T8QE5
Before sending a transaction, all parties must exchange partial key images:
wallet 9uKCgo: export_multisig_info ki1
Multisig info exported to ki1.
wallet 9uKCgo: import_multisig_info ki2 ki3
Height 1103873, txid f7e648915287fafca1dc67eb26267e09f92bba7ab7fd52a12600c3e6440db0eb, 2.000000000000, idx 0/0
Height 1103882, txid 2e3a5591c741c0943a47a2bcbd1ec26493158088c88308bcbfc97423ea95c49, 0.009000000000, idx 0/0
Multisig info imported
Then the wallet is re-synchronized to account for the complete keys. After having received data on outgoing payments, one of the participants can set up the transaction:
wallet 9uKCgo: transfer 9vUnTucAioDHD4ZqrFHXAgfLqrsC3LkZ6JFr5axBLhDiFMaHuEk33aqXimoZEMtQh5ibdYxcNSBw2hBZLAsCnuw4B4rBeZX 1
No payment id is included with this transaction. Is this okay? (Y/Yes/N/No): Y
There is currently a 2 block backlog at that fee level. Is this okay? (Y/Yes/N/No)Y
Spending from address index 0
Sending 1.000000000000. The transaction fee is 0.012000000000
Is this okay? (Y/Yes/N/No): Y
Unsigned transaction(s) successfully written to file: multisig_monero_tx
Then the generated file is transferred to another participant to be signed and broadcast to the network:
[wallet 9twQxU]: sign_multisig multisig_monero_tx
Loaded 1 transactions, for 1.031762770000, fee 0.012000000000, sending 1.000000000000 to 9vUnTucAioDHD4ZqrFHXAgfLqrsC3LkZ6JFr5axBLhDiFMaHuEk33aqXimoZEMtQh5ibdYxcNSBw2hBZLAsCnuw4B4rBeZX, 0.019762770000 change to 9uKCgopHzXrQLnph1ZNFQgdxZZyGhKRLfaNv7EEgWc1f3LQPSZR7BP4ZZn4oH7kAbX3kCd4oDYHg6hE541rQTKtHB7ufnmk, with min ring size 7, no payment ID. Is this okay? (Y/Yes/N/No): Y
Transaction successfully signed to file multisig_monero_tx, txid 1d28af64bc78d05b625c4f7af7c321d4c8943c4c2692f57aa53e303387f40db6
[wallet 9twQxU]: submit_multisig multisig_monero_tx
Loaded 1 transactions, for 1.031762770000, fee 0.012000000000, sending 1.000000000000 to 9vUnTucAioDHD4ZqrFHXAgfLqrsC3LkZ6JFr5axBLhDiFMaHuEk33aqXimoZEMtQh5ibdYxcNSBw2hBZLAsCnuw4B4rBeZX, 0.019762770000 change to 9uKCgopHzXrQLnph1ZNFQgdxZZyGhKRLfaNv7EEgWc1f3LQPSZR7BP4ZZn4oH7kAbX3kCd4oDYHg6hE541rQTKtHB7ufnmk, with min ring size 7, no payment ID. Is this okay? (Y/Yes/N/No): Y
Transaction successfully submitted, transaction <1d28af64bc78d05b625c4f7af7c321d4c8943c4c2692f57aa53e303387f40db6>
You can check its status by using the show_transfers command.
Obviously, with a great desire to use multisig wallets, it’s possible, but this approach is unlikely to suit beginners or mobile users.
Therefore, we are developing our own solution that would allow us to automate the exchange of such data without violating the privacy of the parties and the security of transactions, making multisig applications on Monero accessible to more people. Our solution is being designed to support both standard and multisig wallets, and is being run on an open server that provides the exchange and transfer of data to corresponding wallets.
More information on our contribution to Monero can be found at https://exan.tech/en/projects/monero/, as well as at the project’s page at https://wallet.exan.tech.
Currently, only a limited set of signature schemes is supported, but the developers plan to extend the list to allow for arbitrary values such as 2/5, etc. The only supported way to exchange necessary data is rather inconvenient, but thanks to the Monero’s open ecosystem the community puts high hopes on third-party solutions being developed to improve the situation.
Later in this series, we will talk about other aspects of the Monero blockchain, such as RingCT and ring signatures, wallets architecture and the libwallet library, as well as the network’s future prospects.
Please ask your questions in the comment section, suggest topics for new cryptocurrency-related articles, and subscribe to our blog to stay abreast of our upcoming events and valuable publications.
From : https://hackernoon.com/monero-multisignatures-explained-46b247b098a7
#InziderX #Exchange #ico https://inziderx.io/
(Blocktime * Original Hashrate) / time to solve = Hashrate NeededThus the hashrate it will take to get to the first difficulty adjustment within 5 days is simply:
(14 * 59,000,000,000,000)/ (5 * 24 * 60 * 60) = 1.775 GH/sOnce the first difficulty adjustment has been reached the time to get to the next is trivially deduced for a given hashrate by multiplying the time by the amount the difficulty has been adjusted:
time * difficulty adjustment factor = time to next difficulty adjustmentThus
Difficulty adjustment 2 (5 * 24 * 60 * 60) * 99/2048 = 20,882 seconds = 5.8 hours Difficulty adjustment 3 (20,882) * 99/2048 = 1,009 seconds = 16.82 minutes Difficulty adjustment 4 (1,009) * 99/2048 = 48 seconds Difficulty adjustment 5 within 100 secondsThe cost for hardware that is capable of 1.7GH/s at the time of the fork was ~$20,000. The conclusion here is that within 6 days and with less than 0.0000029% of the hashrate you can fork ETH for a very reasonable cost. When you also factor in that there is at least one person with $150 million to defend, this cost is insignificant and if it works could yield a 7,500X return.
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