University of Nicosia proposes Cyprus become a "worldwide ...

Blockchain Use in Intellectual Property

Blockchain Use in Intellectual Property
Link to original article: https://block.co/blockchain-use-in-intellectual-property/
Patents, trademarks, and industrial designs, along with copyrights, are all types of intellectual property protections that help creators of written stories, inventions, artistic works, or symbols to stop people from stealing or copying their pieces of work. In this article, we will examine how blockchain is used in Intellectual Property rights.
Broadly speaking, Intellectual Properties (IP) are “unique, value-adding creations of the human intellect that result from human ingenuity, creativity, and inventiveness.” (Kalanje, 2006).
By observing trends, we can identify a steady increase in the number of Intellectual Property applications worldwide. According to official statistics by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), applications worldwide of patents grew 72.3% over ten years, increasing to 3,326,300 from 2008 to 2018. Trademarks grew an astonishing 160% over the same period, to a record 14,321,800 number of applications, while industrial design applications were 1,312,600, growing by 61%. Every country has a specific authority where to apply for proper protection. However, it is becoming increasingly common that these jurisdictions will utilize blockchain technology to provide a smoother, faster, and cheaper application process and a system that ensures an incorruptible and secure timestamping through the hashing function.
How does it work?
Blockchain ‘trust’ is guaranteed by hashing algorithms, instead of third parties. Since, by default, hashes are unique and cannot be misinterpreted, nor two same hashes can be produced, it’s just easy to identify and match that hash with a unique document creating an unambiguous proof of existence. This way, a permanent ledger of data is created to prove the existence and the lifecycle of a specific IP right, enhancing its protection at a registry or in court.
Blockchain use in Intellectual Property potential is enormous, aiding in the evidence of creatorship and provenance authentication to registering and clearing IP rights; digital rights management; establishing and enforcing IP agreements, licenses, or exclusive distribution networks through smart contracts; and transmitting payments in real-time to IP owners.
In the case of patents, the real benefit of using blockchain lies in the immutable ledger of records with a tamper-proof code providing strong evidence of facts about an invention life-cycle. However, unlike copyrights, any new creation will still have to be patented with the proper authority or anyone else will be free to copy it or claim it without incurring any legal trouble.
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“Deploying blockchain technology within the patent system could reduce inefficiencies in recording and efficiently agreeing the time of registrations, perhaps across several national patent systems” (Boucher et al., 2017).
In the case of Copyrights, these do not need to be registered with a government authority, therefore blockchain can have a major role in ensuring that evidence can be provided of authorship, use, and status of a specific production. Particularly, in case of disputes in court, blockchain provides strong evidence to prove an inventor’s right on intellectual property, and protect legal rights on authorship. So, when including writing and literary or artistic works, creators get some type of protection automatically via blockchain, whereas with others, they have to apply for it.
Trademarks, on the other hand, are the IP protection type that can most benefit from blockchain because it can easily, quickly, and very cheaply prove how similar are two marks to each other and who can claim to have used it first, providing immutable and timestamped proof of dates and usage. By using blockchain, many of the questions which can arise about exactly when, where, and how the trademark was used, can be instantly answered.
Cyprus-based company Block.co provides services in a range of different industries, and timestamping trademarks on the blockchain is one of them. The company is a spin-off of the University of Nicosia, one of the biggest blockchain contributors globally, and its mission is to eliminate document fraud in all sectors, by transforming the way institutions manage digital records.
International business and technology lawyer Christiana Aristidou makes large use of Block.co’s services and especially in copyrights and trademarks for several of her clients.
“We consider the Block.co solution indispensable towards our objective of constantly enhancing the provision of our legal services through innovative technological solutions. The protection of copyright and other relevant intellectual property rights now involves a simple, fast, automated, and cost-efficient, blockchain-backed certificate issuance. Using blockchain, thereby ensuring a transparent, immutable, secure, time-stamped, and tamper-proof recording of data, the Block.co solution offers a revolutionary and innovative means to protect our clients’ intellectual property, instead of other time-consuming and costly traditional processes.” she recently stated.
“Specifically, our clients’ data and evidence supporting their authorship, invention, or creation of any property that warrants copyright protection, may now be recorded in a digital document, which is then verified in a trusted and time-stamped manner on a blockchain. Our clients retain ownership and control of their data, having been granted easy access to a self-verifiable blockchain-secured certificate of such data.”
Smart Contracts
Smart contracts could also represent an important asset of blockchain technology because they can be used in intellectual property to establish and enforce agreements such as licenses and allow the transmission of payments in real-time to IP owners. Indeed, they allow automatic payments for transactions between users and rights holders with no middle man, thereby cutting out intermediate fees, longer procedures, and bureaucratic hurdles.
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Blockchain in IP around the world
In Europe, various governmental agencies and IP registries such as the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO) are actively involved in researching and promoting blockchain capabilities within the industry.
In particular, they believe blockchain can transform IP rights by highlighting, in one of their advanced research forums, that:
  • IP and blockchain are interrelated
  • Blockchain is transformative
  • IP protection will drive innovation in the ecosystem
  • Blockchain technology will transform IP protection and enforcement
  • Blockchain technology provides opportunities for both pirates and law enforcement
In India, the IPO (Indian Patent Office) is working on using blockchain and other innovative technologies like AI and IOT to enable smoother patent processes. A Blockchain-AI-based ecosystem is on the table to manage IP protection in India, intending to produce a much more efficient, straightforward, and faster procedure. IPO recently announced a tender called, “Expression of Interest for Making use of Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain, IoT and other latest technologies in the Patent Processing system of IPO”, reinforcing their will to proceed along this line of work and stay up to date with the technological innovation that blockchain, AI and IoT can bring to the benefit of IP rights. A legal framework for a Blockchain-based IP registry to protect and commercialize smart ideas is one of the main and earliest initiatives the IPO is taking for the Indian IP industry.
In the United States, we find a clear example of how blockchain is used to protect American businesses from IPR theft by testing imports. Since blockchain has proven to be beneficial to streamline communication between multiple parties securely, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), with the funding of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science & Technology Directorate, recently completed a proof-of-concept (PoC) of a blockchain platform with that specific aim. Personal data and trade secrets would be kept safe at all times using encrypted keys, with the blockchain acting as an immutable ledger to record trade transactions.
In Southeast Asia, Thailand is leading the way in developing blockchain technology for IP protection. Various organizations and government offices have invested in projects aimed at implementing the tech to make IPR processes more efficient and faster. The Ministry of Commerce has recently launched a feasibility study to explore the use of blockchain for IP registration in the country, while the Thai Trade Policy and Strategy Office (TPSO), in collaboration with the British Embassy, were designated to analyze the study and translate it into action plans for future developments.
Conclusion — Blockchain limits and benefits in IP
As with every new technology, especially the most disruptive ones, setbacks can be both from a technical and a systemic perspective. Enormous processing power and scalability are still the main issues from a technical point, whereas a system that could connect registries across the world through a single distributed ledger represents the main challenge, not only for IP-related industries. Thankfully, Block.co’s solution already uses the Bitcoin blockchain and its network effect for this purpose, envisioning truly decentralized and secure storage for IP rights, that will outlive any issuing institution itself.
An international standardized system and platform that could facilitate global communication and successful management of IP rights via blockchain is an ambition that is reflected in healthcare, law, and many other industries. On the other hand, blockchain based IP rights enforcement is already a huge achievement, especially for those small artists who could not afford teams of lawyers to defend them in disputes to prove records of their authorship.
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Tel +357 70007828
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The Future Of The Accounting Industry Using Blockchain

The Future Of The Accounting Industry Using Blockchain
Link to our website: https://block.co/the-future-of-the-accounting-industry-using-blockchain/
Blockchain as an immutable and incorruptible ledger of different types of data finds its natural expression in accounting. Or, we could reverse the concept in that accounting is the most natural application for blockchain technology. Modern accounting is based on the double-entry system which, since the Renaissance time, allowed managers to realize whether they could trust their own books.
In the double-entry system, transactions are recorded in terms of debits and credits. Since a debit in one account neutralizes a credit in another, the sum of all debits must equal the sum of all credits. Double-entry bookkeeping allows firms to maintain records that show what the firm owns and owes, and also what the firm has earned and spent over any given period of time. Triple entry accounting is a more recent enhancement of the traditional double-entry system in which all accounting entries, including purchases of inventory and supplies, sales, taxes, utility expenses, and so forth, are cryptographically sealed by a third entry.
With blockchain, these entries occur in the same distributed, public ledger rather than in separate books, creating an interlocking system of immutable accounting records. Being distributed and cryptographically sealed, manipulating, or destroying these entries is practically impossible. Companies using blockchain triple-entry bookkeeping acquire major benefits from adoption. First, it helps auditors quickly and easily access and verify financial data, thus reducing considerably the cost and time necessary to conduct an audit. Second, it helps preserve the integrity of a company’s financial statements since an encrypted signature of the counterparty is required in order to be accepted as valid, thus drastically reducing the risk of counterfeits.
While most operations are still performed manually or, even if delivered on software are still labor-intensive tasks and far from being automated, blockchain appears as the technology needed to simplify and improve regulatory compliance, enhance the prevalent double-entry bookkeeping, reduce fraud, auditing processes and errors. In essence, blockchain technology enables complete verification without the need of a trusted party.
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On 10th August, Block.co CEO Alexis Nicolaou appeared on The Future of Accounting Industry using Blockchain webcast to discuss upcoming changes in accounting along with Dr. Maria Papadaki, Managing Director at BUiD Dubai Center for Risk and Innovation and Raymond Abrea, President & CEO of Philippine Abrea Consulting Group, hosted by Legal Solutions expert and Senior Executive of CACI, Edward Logan.
Maria Papadaki has more than 10 years of experience in Risk Management from both academia and industry, with numerous years in the implementation, development, improvement, and management of risk frameworks, tools, and techniques. She believes that “Blockchain is going to introduce a new component in accounting that’s going to make the work easier. It will provide a link between the two double-entry books together in an open way and will put things in order. Auditing will also become easier while trust, fraud, and compliance issues will all become obsolete with the open and distributed blockchain because it’s hard to cheat when everybody is watching. It will reveal less human interface with immutable, accurate, and easy to verify transactions. Accounting needs to be innovated with international links between institutions, organizations, and businesses”.
Raymond Abrea, based in the Philippines, is also Co-Chair of the Ease of Doing Business (EODB) Task Force on Paying Taxes and the brainchild of the TaxWhizPH mobile app. He was recognized as one of the 2017 Outstanding Young Persons of the World. “As a tax consultant, I choose integrity over profit with our game-changing strategy to do what is right and help the client pay the right taxes while pushing for genuine tax reform as an important contribution to the nation-building of the Philippines”. “I am not a blockchain expert — continues Raymond — but someone who will benefit from it and as a company we collaborate with various institutions to help implement blockchain to fight corruption, fraud, more errors, and so forth. Tax compliance review, tax audit, and assessment will all gain efficiency with the blockchain thanks to smoother processes while saving time and money. It normally takes about one month to go through all the procedures of tax registration and payment before it’s all approved by the government, and we believe blockchain will cut that time considerably.”
So, do accountants need to fear for their jobs?
Whenever new technologies appear, there is widespread worry among different sectors that jobs might be impacted and specific professions are abolished. As webcast guests repeatedly affirmed during the event, blockchain will surely disrupt accounting in that both professionals and clients will be offered safer and more immutable records while making processes easier and faster but the responsibilities of accountants will largely remain intact. Auditing will also be disrupted with the disuse of paper trail documents and the adoption of encrypted key data verification supporting financial statements, thus reducing costs and time for the audit payer. Also, regulatory compliance can be verified more efficiently.

Alexis Nicolaou has over 25 years’ experience in C-suite positions in Accountancy, Finance, Electronic Banking, Electronic Banking Software, Media, and he currently also serves on the board of Directors of Grant Thornton Cyprus’ Distributed Ledger Technologies business unit. “I am an accountant myself and one thing accountants should not worry about is that they would lose their jobs with blockchain. On the contrary, their jobs will evolve and will be enhanced. As all entries in blockchain are distributed and cryptographically sealed, it is virtually impossible to destroy or manipulate that information. This so-called triple entry bookkeeping model will be accessible to all relevant parties. The auditor, the regulator, the client will all have an identical copy of the ledger at all times; it will be distributed across a peer to peer network of nodes and shared in multiple sites”.
Despite having all the information agreed by all parties and timestamped in the blockchain, businesses will still need to hire good accountants to interpret and categorize that information, and they will have to implement and maintain the system. So, no, the accountant’s job is not at risk. As the info is secured, encrypted, and transmitted to a network of members, accountants will be able to provide more real-time advice and guidance to the client and their role will actually be more consistent. “The future accountant will need to be more skilled in IT and not just with numbers” carries on Alexis.
Block.co has introduced electronic correspondence and filing for a while now, and that translates into a major reduction of costs, paper waste, and time. It all started in 2014 when the University of Nicosia began to issue certificates on the blockchain. They anchored the fingerprint of that document (certificate) on the blockchain. They then shared it with their students, and all a student had to do when they went for a job interview was to present that PDF file, while all the employer had to do is drag and drop that PDF file.
“Many businesses — continues Alexis — shy away from electronic archiving systems but using a blockchain makes it possible to prove the integrity of a file and the way we do it at Block.co is by generating the hash, a fingerprint of that file, and timestamping it on the open and public Bitcoin blockchain. We developed a platform where all we have to do is drag and drop a PDF file and this can be done with any type of document, an invoice, a legal document, a medical certificate. I remember back in the ’90s, when I started the profession, everything was much longer and burdensome because it was done on paper. This is what I mean when I say that the accounting profession needs to evolve and embrace more IT skills in order to stand up to the competition with other more innovative companies.”
During the webcast, Raymond asked a compelling question about how will blockchain be implemented. Will it be powered by governments or by private initiative? Since the Philippines started adopting digital systems, they still have issues with government compliance, therefore any technological innovation takes a long time to be implemented. “In Dubai for example — advises Dr. Papadaki — blockchain adoption is mandated by the government which makes everything easier. They are driving all initiatives to report improvement and adapt it in an excellent way. I think Cyprus is going that way too, therefore, it ultimately depends on the individual country”.
Alexis, also, believes that it’s extremely important for the government to be on board. Malta, for instance, was the first country to introduce legislation concerning blockchain and Cyprus is following suit and their initiative has been particularly successful because local governments actively participated and promoted the adoption of the technology. “Private institutions are running it but to have a global acceptance governments will need to embrace it too. Governments have come to understand, especially during the pandemic, that we need to push innovation in technology so hopefully, this will put pressure on them to adopt blockchain more quickly”.
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Blockchain in the Public Sector: Webcast Insights

Blockchain in the Public Sector: Webcast Insights
Link to our website: https://block.co/blockchain-in-the-public-sector-webcast-insights/
This article provides a summary of the insights provided during Block.co’s 4th Live Webcast on the topic of Digital Transformation Of The Public Sector & The Upcoming Legislation Of Blockchain Technology In Cyprus.
Adoption of Blockchain and other disruptive technologies has flourished particularly in smaller nations that represent interesting hubs where innovations are more easily tested and applied. With blockchain in Public Sector, we’ve already experienced the commitment of small countries like Switzerland, Malta, Singapore, and Cyprus more recently. In just a few years, the small island in the Mediterranean known for tourism and offshore bank accounts has become a desirable fintech jurisdiction for investors and global businesses, due to the vivid interest of the Cypriot government towards new technologies, blockchain and AI imprimis.
With a highly favorable tax environment and the financial incentives available, Cyprus is shining as a hotspot for blockchain businesses and entrepreneurs from all over the world. In 2018 a Declaration was signed by EU member states to promote blockchain in public sector use across its members. By that time, Cyprus had already expressed interest in the technology with a series of initiatives. Cyprus’s partnership with Singapore-based blockchain platform VeChain was sealed to push forward the development and adoption of the technology. In addition, the Cyprus Blockchain Association was created while the University of Nicosia was involved in the development of the technology by offering courses and Master’s degrees on blockchain and cryptocurrencies, and by also practically using blockchain technology to validate academic documentation through block.co.
The Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC) launched a blockchain innovation hub with other organizations and associations to support the development and implementation of technologies that can facilitate administrative operations and improve citizens relations with authorities. In 2019, Cyprus’ cabinet published its National Strategy on Distributed Ledger Technologies in order to provide a platform for both public sector and private initiatives employing blockchain applications. With such an exciting background in mind, Block.co arranged its fourth webcast that was held on Tuesday 21st July at the presence of prominent guests, who are all helping the government of Cyprus, develop and adopt the disruptive technologies in its administrative, economic and legal activities.
How are corporates, governments, and citizens impacted by the changes in legislation?
Hosted by brilliant Christiana Aristidou, a Technology Lawyer and Digital Transformation Specialist, Block.co along with Cyprus’s Deputy Minister for Research, Innovation & Digital Policy, Mr. Kyriacos Kokkinos, and international Blockchain experts Jeff Bandman and Steve Tendon joined forces in the webcast to discuss the enormous potential of Blockchain technology in both the public and private sectors.
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The guests’ common path into blockchain was the early and skeptical discovery of Bitcoin followed by years of research and a more in-depth understanding of the technology which led them to embrace it in different ways.
Jeff became interested in the legal implications and the regulatory framework that would arise with the technology. His firm Bandman Advisors has recently been appointed by the Cyprus Government to draft its legislation on Blockchain & DLT.
Steve was a software engineer who moved to a management consulting role and had founded TameFlow when he learned about technologies like Ethereum and how its smart contracts could be used in governance. He became a consultant for Malta to help the country benefit from blockchain adoption and gave a major contribution to the drafting of Malta’s National Strategy on Blockchain.
The Deputy Minister, Mr. Kokkinos is the person responsible for the design and implementation of Cyprus’s Blockchain and DLT strategy:
“We want to convert the innovation researching tools into pillars for our economy to encourage more prosperity for our society. Blockchain and DLT are essential for digital transformation, a key player in a globalized economy. In June 2019, the Council of Ministers of Cyprus approved a strategy for DLT and blockchain, and part of my job is to facilitate the detailed implementation through both technical and legal perspectives. Jeff Bandman has worked to help with the legal, I help with the strategic side.”
The strategy document indicates that “The Republic of Cyprus, in line with the European and global trends of change and progress, strives to create the right environment for enterprises, companies, services, and investments by adopting innovative practices and procedures.”
“We’re all closely monitoring discussions at the EU level -continues the Deputy Minister- in order to meet regulatory standards and we’re considering them for our strategy. We’re working on achieving maximum compatibility with the EU legislation and encouraging all members to arrange a deployment of blockchain in all fields.”
Governments have come to realize they must provide all tools available and needed for digital transformation in the public sector, to ultimately best serve its business communities and citizens alike. The intricacies of bureaucracy speed up the need for new technologies, and in the pandemic era, access to digitalization is proving crucial to meet future challenges especially in areas where blockchain can help like healthcare, supply chain, and digital identity implementation. Jeff believes that blockchain can start by keeping consistency between democracy and trust, through the transparency that it can provide. “For example tracing the origin of funds and their allocation, will facilitate trust which is the basis of a distributed and decentralized environment”.
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According to Steve: “Blockchain can be interesting from different perspectives and I also believe trust is crucial. While we normally trust governments and authorities to manage most of our public and private life, with blockchain we have the chance to take it all back and shift to a sovereign approach. Starting with your own identity, with healthcare records, licenses, voting, and so forth, self-sovereignty will identify who you are, not a government. We’ve started building SOV, a stablecoin that will soon be legal tender, detached from a central bank but built on the chain and established by the algorithm. For the first time, this new monetary policy will remove the discretionary power of central banks, something that was not even conceivable before blockchain. The power is back to the people”.
With the first upcoming legislation in Cyprus, Christiana asked Jeff if he could share what this new law will involve, and what will be regulated.
“We’ve been working very hard on drafting and evaluating the different perspectives. Most efforts and resources are being dedicated to a definition and classification of the different digital assets, to the legal certainty around smart contracts, and to protect vulnerable consumers. From a business perspective, we’re still evaluating company laws, how blockchain can assist the full operational process, which criteria will help mainstream adoption of blockchain in Cyprus”.
The results of the 2019 strategy plan were supposed to be released in April but the Covid-19 crisis has delayed the works and they’re now expected in September this year. “The lesson we can learn from pioneer Malta -informs us Steve, who played a pivotal role in shaping Malta’s blockchain reputation- is to set up the right expectation and find a balance between the level of ambition and what is practical. Malta became a blockchain island because it made efforts to regulate the technology, but the challenge is to make regulation fair and accessible to everybody, the community, and the professionals so that innovation is encouraged at all times.”
What will the future hold for Cyprus? Will it be the new blockchain island?
“We have a promising technology -continues Steve Tendon- and collaboration between countries should be encouraged in terms of legislation and regulations, and the EU should take a more active role. It’s not a competition but a collaboration between Malta, Cyprus, and other geographies where a regulatory framework that promotes innovation should reflect and embrace the changes that new technologies bring to a globalized world.”
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Blockchain in Healthcare – Webcast Q&A

Blockchain in Healthcare – Webcast Q&A
On our website, you can find the original article: https://block.co/webcastqa-blockchain-in-healthcare/
Block.co third webcast ” Blockchain in Healthcare: Bridging Trust in response to COVID-19“ received amazing feedback! We gathered some of the best experts in the field, Georgina Kyriakoudes, Ahmed Abdulla, Dimitri Neocleous, Dr. Alice Loveys to share their experience in the industry and discuss with us the latest updates in the sphere of Healthcare! In its third series of webcasts, Block.co gathered 253 people watching the event from 59 different countries, for a 90-minute webcast where guests answered participants’ questions.
Below is a list of the questions that were made and were not answered due to time constraints during the Blockchain in Healthcare webcast. Please note that the below information is only for educational purposes!
Question 1: I like what Dimitrios was saying regarding ownership and transfer. Health and social care have invested much in Information Management systems and processes. Transfer between NHS and social care is a typical block. Can you elaborate on how the blockchain sits across that – leapfrogs yet goes with the grain of what is already there in terms of shared records protocols, the exponentially growing types of professionals, pharmacists, careers, etc. that need early access to these records for better decision making.
Block.co Team Answer: Blockchain technology has the potential to improve healthcare, placing the patient at the center of the health care ecosystem, while providing security, privacy, and interoperability of health data. Blockchain could provide a new model for health information exchanges and transform electronic medical records to be more efficient, disintermediated, and secure. While it is not a cure, this new, Blockchain in Healthcare rapidly evolving field provides a sandbox for experimentation, investment, and proof-of-concept testing.
Healthcare systems around the world are preparing road maps that define critical policy and technical components needed for nationwide interoperability, including:
  • Ubiquitous, secure network infrastructure
  • Verifiable identity and authentication of all participants
  • Consistent illustration of authorization to access electronic health data, and several other requirements.
However, current technologies don’t totally address these necessities, and as a result, they face limitations associated with security, privacy, and full ecosystem interoperability.
Blockchain technology creates distinctive opportunities to scale back complexity, improve trustless collaboration, and create secure and immutable data. National Healthcare Systems need to track this rapidly evolving field to identify trends and sense the areas where government support may be needed for the technology to realize its full potential in health care. To form blockchain’s future, they ought to take into account mapping and gathering the blockchain ecosystem, establishing a blockchain framework to coordinate early-adopters, and supporting a pool for dialogue and discovery.
https://preview.redd.it/p17us55i6f851.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=80570ea170e78a728d69abb1602effeed1a50116
Question 2: What about the “compatibility” of blockchain solutions in healthcare with GDPR and/or other regulations about personal data protection.
Block.co Team Answer: The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Europe’s new framework for data protection laws, has a vital impact on healthcare organizations. During this more and more patient-centric world where global healthcare organizations collect a large set of data on patients to produce improved health outcomes, this increased regulation has an even larger impact.
GDPR presents challenges across all industries and includes language that has a special impact on healthcare. The regulation defines “personal” data as “any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (data subject); an identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person.” On top of this definition, GDPR contains three extra, important definitions that pertain to health data:
  1. “Data concerning health” is defined by the GDPR as “personal data related to the physical or mental health of a natural person, including the provision of health care services, which reveal information about his or her health status.”
  2. “Genetic data” is outlined by the GDPR as “personal data relating to inherited or acquired genetic characteristics of a natural person which give unique information about the physiology or the health of that natural person and which result, in particular, from an analysis of a biological sample from the natural person in question.”
  3. “Biometric data” is “personal data resulting from specific technical processing relating to the physical, physiological, or behavioral characteristics of a natural person, which allows or confirms the unique identification of that natural person, such as facial images or dactyloscopic data.”
As described in Article 6 of GDPR, processing of personal data is considered lawful if: (1) the data subject has given consent; (2) it is necessary for the performance of a contract to which the data subject is a party; (3) it is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation; (4) it is necessary to protect the vital interest of the data subject or another natural person; (5) it is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest; (6) it is necessary for the purposes of the legitimate interests pursued by the controller or third party.
However, healthcare organizations that usually manage health data, have an added responsibility to take care of “data concerning health,” “genetic data,” and “biometric data” to a higher standard of protection than personal data, in general. GDPR prohibits the processing of these forms of health data unless one of the three conditions below would apply as per Article 9.
a. The data subject must have given “explicit consent.”
b. “Processing is necessary for the purposes of preventive or occupational medicine, for the assessment of the working capacity of the employee, medical diagnosis, the provision of health or social care or treatment or the management of health or social care systems and services …”
c. “Processing is necessary for reasons of public interest in the area of public health, such as protecting against serious cross-border threats to health or ensuring high standards of quality and safety of health care and of medicinal products or medical devices …”
Consent VS Explicit Consent – If one pays attention, there’s a difference in the GDPR’s health data use conditions (calls for “explicit consent”) and the general definition (calls for “consent”). Thus, there’s an ongoing debate as to what constitutes the difference between “unambiguous” and “explicit” consent. Despite the debate and the final legal clarifications, there is no doubt that in the purposes of the healthcare the “explicit consent” must have the strongest agreement form listing in detail the use(s) of data and covering the cases of data transfers and storage.
Question 3: How can we use blockchain technology by the government in Africanflavored government, say by Ministry of health to have patient autonomy of medical records that can be accessed by any government hospital irrespective of the ailment and record printed by the previous hospital and doctor, such as referral cases without having to open a new file in the referred hospital.
Block.co Team Answer: Perhaps that would be an ideal implementation of the Block.co solution issuing a digital certificate of medical examination on an Open Public Blockchain such as the Bitcoin blockchain, that would be decentralized in nature, easy to validate online without any special wallets, and would be provided by the patient on-demand, to refer to treatments received in other hospitals or areas. But this would require that the practitioner is aware and can use the open-source code or use Block.co services to issue these certificates. Alternatively, there could be the use of a wallet to store these medical credentials to be submitted on demand to health practitioners. Moreover, there would need to be an alignment of regulation in the matter as decentralized repositories are not recognized at the moment.

Question 4: Is there any data breach threat in the blockchain using a poorly protected private key at communication?
Block.co Team Answer: Millions of health care records have already been breached, and in attempts to combat this issue, solutions often result in the inaccessibility of health records. Health providers often send information to other providers, and this often ends up in mishandling of data, losing records, or passing on inaccurate and old data. In some cases, only one copy of an updated health record exists, and this may result in the loss of information. Health records often contain personal information such as names, social security numbers, and home addresses. When it comes to Blockchain in Healthcare, a poorly protected private key is always a factor to consider. A private key allows us to sign a transaction and spend funds residing in an address (public key) by providing ownership with the signature. It is a unique string of information that represents proof of identification inside the blockchain, which includes the right to access and control the participant’s wallet. It must be kept secret, as it is effectively a personal password. In the case that that private key is poorly protected, there is always a data breach threat.
Question 5: The medical record of a patient is owned by the patient. What happens if a doctor accesses the record without the consent of the patient? Using the smart contract, could there be a governing body, say a legal system that can call the doctor to order?
Block.co Team Answer: Rather than having each physical and electronic copies of records, blockchains may enable the shift to electronic health records (EHR). When looking at Blockchain in Healthcare, medical records on the blockchain would be within the management of the patient rather than a third party, through the patients’ private and public keys. Patients may then control access to their health records, making transferring information less cumbersome. Because blockchain ledgers are immutable, health information may not be deleted or tampered with. Blockchain transactions would be accompanied by a timestamp, permitting those with access to maintain updated information. The doctor would not be able to access the record without the consent of the patient. A patient would need to sign the transaction in a smart contract in order to transfer patient details to the doctor.
Question 6: So, how are private data protected when the patient is simply notified that unauthorized access just took place on her medical record? and, how are the negative results of this breach rectified towards the patient?
Block.co Team Answer: The patient would be notified to sign a transaction enabling access to the party requesting access to the specific medical record. In other cases, there could be a multi-signature wallet requiring multiple transactions in the cases where the patient may need assistance, for example, when underage or when not in a healthy state of mind, or being non-responsive or in critical condition. The patient needs to be responsible for his own data and be empowered through awareness and know-how of this technology. With great power, comes also great responsibility, although it is yet a challenge to enable computer illiterate people to interact with this technology.
Question 7: Can the same record of a patient still be shared with private hospitals and say another government/private hospital abroad on the same blockchain?
Block.co Team Answer: Depending on whether the information is on a public blockchain or a private blockchain. When on a private blockchain, they will need to be granted permission to access the blockchain accordingly.
Question 8: No one has directly spoken about ownership where a large research institution/ consortium is working with the data – it is not solely the person who has said so…
Block.co Team Answer: Indeed, it is solely not the person who has a say so. Technology may be used in both evil and good ways and it is still the obligation and responsibility of people within governments to ensure human liberties and rights are preserved when utilizing such powerful technologies such as blockchain and sometimes the combination of blockchain with AI, IoT, and biometrics. Blockchain in Healthcare, in the same way, that it can empower individuals and increase their standard of living and prosperity, at the same time, it can also empower corrupt governments with alternative agendas and totalitarian states. Block.co believes it is most important for people to be educated around the matter and be able to form a voice and movement to safeguard their human liberties and rights, hence our continuous effort on discussing these matters with our community and providing education, powered by the pioneers in the space, the University of Nicosia.
We would like to thank everyone for attending our webcast and hoping to interact with you in future webinars. If you would like to watch the webinar again, then click here!
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Webcast Insights — Blockchain for the Educational Industry: Remote Learning, Social Distancing, and the Certification Case

Webcast Insights — Blockchain for the Educational Industry: Remote Learning, Social Distancing, and the Certification Case
Every industry is typically disrupted by technology. From financial to legal services, retail to manufacturing, they all experience an economic and systematic impact due to innovation at some point. With a global edu-tech market expected to grow to $93.76 billion by the end of 2020, education is no exception to the rule.
Along with blockchain, technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Augmented and Virtual reality, Machine Learning, and Data Forecasting, will all play a major role in the educational system of the future.
Recently, South Korea’s Suseong University announced a plan to create a blockchain and AI campus in Daegu, an indication that the world is rapidly changing due to the global Covid-19 crisis and that a blockchain and AI-based society could be materializing quickly.
In addition to smart working, smart cities, and everything else that can be identified as a technology-driven system, smart classrooms are also not too far-off from being accepted as a new standard, and blockchain will help develop that new model by facilitating transactions, issuance of documentation and enhancing online security.
In a previous article, Block.co had already illustrated the benefits of blockchain technology for universities and all academic institutions. Cost-saving and anti-fraud support are only a couple of the advantages offered by the innovative solution.
A few months on, since that article, blockchain and other disruptive technologies have acquired a completely new significance in light of the current Covid-19 emergency. Remote working and learning have forced a re-evaluation of the existing technologies that turned out to be essential in easing the transition to a new performing method.
In most cases, due to the urgency, institutions were under pressure to accelerate their remote working adoption process at the same time as facing all the difficulties and major issues presented by critical situations. Those who were already using advanced digital tools like blockchain and Artificial Intelligence instead turned out to be better prepared and in many cases even more productive than in the pre-covid era.

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Professor George Giaglis, Executive Director of the Institute For the Future at the University of Nicosia declared during the last Block.co webcast that “In order for a technology to be highly effective, an organization needs to invest in the right people first or the tech is wasted and useless. At the University of Nicosia, we were well prepared and our people were educated to cope easily with the new Covid-19 working from home situation. This helped them being even more productive since they did not have to spend any time adapting to a new working model”
In 2015, the University of Nicosia became the first to use blockchain to issue verified academic credentials on the Bitcoin blockchain. Professor Giaglis believes that blockchain for universities represents a basket of different technologies, all converging together to build a future with no limits. In particular, the way blockchain can and will be combined with AI or IoT.
Academic institutions that adopted blockchain early opened opportunities to commercial markets too, since any type of certification that requires tamper-proof against fraud finds a great help in the blockchain.
Similarly, the British University of Dubai was an early adopter of disruptive technologies and found it easy to adjust to the new working model. As explained by the other prominent guest of the webcast, Dr. Maria Papadaki, Managing Director at the BUiD Dubai Center for Risk and Innovation, “Remote working is here to stay because we have the digital tools that allow it”.
Yet, she also highlighted a different perspective: “Yes, it’s here to stay but not here to take the human being out of the system. We need to find a balance between what technology can offer in terms of improving our learning or working experiences and the everlasting need for the personal exchange of feelings and energy. We do not have to encourage a distance between students and professors, employers, and their staff, by allowing digital technology to overtake all aspects of relationships”.
Blockchain has helped both universities tackle fraud issues as well as certify students digitally on the bitcoin network, thus avoiding physical presence and even direct contact with the institution. In the coronavirus era, this turned out to be vital.
Decentralizing finance was the first original intent of blockchain, therefore it should not come as a surprise that also academic institutions might want to try that route. Tokenization via blockchain is an experimental use that academic institutions are attempting to facilitate payments. Smart contracts can be used to assign a reputation to users based on feedback from others, who will be initially verified by a blockchain-based ID system. Another model conceives blockchain to tokenize talent in a private tutoring environment. They are all experiments at present but give us the idea of what future directions might be for universities.
In this regard, Prof. George Giaglis reminds us that central banks will likely issue their own digital currencies in the next two years. This means that also all other digital currencies and tokens already in existence will be legitimized as a result.
One essential aspect of the adoption process of technologies like blockchain will certainly be a desirable collaboration between universities. Dr. Maria Papadaki has always been an advocate of creating a network between academic institutions in order to share and obtain the best results by technology. “BUiD is working closely with UNIC, Block.co, and the Dubai Blockchain center. It is a way of showing our commitment to both Emirates Blockchain strategy and Dubai Strategy to make Dubai the happiest city on Earth.”

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There’s plenty of space for further technological innovation in the industry and one of the issues that will have to be resolved in the future is the possibility to mimic remote examinations.
During the Block.co webcast, Prof. George Giaglis launched a challenge to developers who would like to take the entrepreneurial way and could assist in building an application or software that will make remote examinations possible and trustworthy.
If anyone is interested in taking up the challenge, the University of Nicosia and Block.co would like to hear from them!
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Blockchain in Healthcare: Bridging Trust in response to COVID-19

Blockchain in Healthcare: Bridging Trust in response to COVID-19
Link to our article: https://block.co/blockchain-in-healthcare/
There’s never been a better time to provide proof-of-health solutions in the healthcare system globally. While it’s difficult to comprehend the significance of the role that technology may offer in such difficult times, essentially it can be nailed down to its basic concept of simplifying work and coordinating activities, which could have helped avoid the worst crisis people have experienced in their lifetime. If the healthcare system would adopt technological innovations in the early stages, it could have benefited and saved many lives.
Although the healthcare system has traditionally been slow in embracing the latest digital solutions, just like many other industries, we’ve observed in a previous article how the Covid-19 crisis has accelerated the adoption of digital technologies on a global scale in several industries, including healthcare.
The latest webcast brought to the audience by Block.co hosted some high profile experts from the industry. They illustrated how blockchain especially, together with other technologies such as IoT, and AI could in the future help elevate prompt responses, and provide more secure and efficient storage of data, something that has been missed in the recent pandemic.
Ahmed Abdulla from Digipharm, Dr. Alice Loveys from EY, and Dimitrios Neocleous from VeChain were hosted by Georgina Kyriakoudes, one of the first in the world to hold an MSc in Digital Currency, founder of Dcentric.Health and creator of the permissioned blockchain ecosystem app called Aria, which aims to transform the patient healthcare experience by giving individuals full control of their medical records.
Blockchain’s benefits in healthcare are primarily identified by efficiency, specifically on the transfer of data, facilitation of goods transport via the supply chain, prevention of counterfeit medicines sale, secure storage, and exchange of data around ID management. The impressive projects all the webcast guests have developed in the industry enable just these features, from the digitization of patient records to storage and exchange of medical data as well as easier processing of funds.
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Ahmed Abdulla founded Digipharm with the idea of issuing tokens to allow patients to be in control of their medical records at all times. Moreover, tokens are issued to be paid for anonymously sharing personal medical data to help research; pay for healthcare based on how it has improved quality of life.
We have experienced a disparity in Covid-19 tests costs around the world. For instance, getting tested in Cyprus costs around €60 while in the US it may add up to a few thousand dollars. This is due to the way countries arrange payment setups from payers to providers. Blockchain empowers people to take ownership of their records and funds while providing transparency of processes. This is where blockchain can be robust, by increasing transparency and allowing the patient to secure money transfer and hold their own records”, stated Ahmed.
His work as blockchain advisor at the UN Economic Commission for Europe is helping set up standards for the blockchain ecosystem, namely how the system should be used safely, and in a way that benefits all stakeholders.
“I lead the blockchain and healthcare team at the UN center for trade facilitation and e-business where we developed a blockchain and trade facilitation white paper; the second phase will soon provide an advanced technology advisory board to advise private or public stakeholders on what’s the best technology to use. It might not always be blockchain, hence we first understand and then advise if the tech is right for them or not. Blockchain is clunky, expensive, and not always proper for the organization we work with”, continued the blockchain expert.
Most people may prefer public and permissionless blockchain because it has major advantages over a private and permissioned one. Transparency stands out for the way the ledger is shared and for due diligence becoming unnecessary as a result. This means costs are also cheaper, in the range of 100% lower. On the other hand, a public decentralized blockchain has a major disadvantage since no legal framework is laid out. This means uncertainty as there is still a grey area in the legal field that might create confusion.
Dimitrios Neocleous is Ecosystem Manager at VeChain Tech and directly supported digital and technological solutions provider I-DANTE with the creation of the E-NewHealthLife and the E-HCert for the Mediterranean Hospital of Cyprus. Both apps give patients control over their health records, improve medical data sharing, and increase hospital operational efficiencies by simplifying the process of visiting a hospital.
E-NewHealthLife is a complex ecosystem solution that starts from a patient’s visit to an emergency room. A card with the reason for a patient’s visit is issued; it gets time-stamped; the patient is sent to the waiting room; once the patient’s turn comes and the medical check is completed, the card is scanned and the visit is closed. Patients can digitally access all diagnoses that took place anytime at the hospital.
“The platform produces a digital health passport, which is an encrypted non-fungible card that patients can use to identify themselves automatically when registering at the hospital’s emergency room. The passport is stored within a mobile app called E-HCert, which keeps track of each patient’s medical data and can be shared as needed”, announced Dimitrios.
E-HCert App is a Covid-19 lab test electronic wallet and pushes up the results of a patient who’s been tested for COVID. It has been proven to be very successful so far; currently, 2000 people who transited through the Larnaca airport in Cyprus have downloaded the app. With time-stamped records, it’s able to provide data such as the day and time when the sample was collected, it offers immutability, security, and integrity of data.
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“Covid-19 showed a deficiency in healthcare. The spread of the virus could have been prevented if we had digitization of processes and transparency of data through blockchain, and transfer of data through an authorized share of records. An open permissionless decentralized blockchain helps bring ownership of medical records back to the patient, and that is not possible in a centralized system”, continued the VeChain representative.
Dr. Alice Loveys is EY ‘s healthcare blockchain leader in the US and has been at the forefront of emerging healthcare technologies for her entire career including being a pioneer in electronic health record adoption, health information exchange, and privacy and security.
She believes that “blockchain technology is like a plumbing system that brings clean and transparent trusted data that can be used. It’s not proper for a track and trace system as it invades privacy unless there is the consent from patients, in that case, blockchain transparent share of data would be extremely useful for medical research and testing”.
One problem we experienced during the crisis is the confusion that arose with divulged information and the frustration that comes with it. People do not understand anymore which information can be trusted; at first, it looked like COVID-19 symptoms were not dangerous, then it came out that they actually were. Masks were not useful at the beginning, then they suddenly became necessary.
“Blockchain could have prevented lockdown and economic crisis through data management in that a much faster response would have been provided to tackle misinformation because blockchain can help manage data from different sources”, continues Dr. Loveys. “Moreover, it’s a great way to protect the database. Instead of moving any private sensitive medical data through the more traditional digital systems, blockchain simply allows us to send an algorithm, encrypted data that safeguards the information. It’s not a great use as a database as it does not scale, therefore we would not be able to store information for billions of people in it. But for the data that is in the blockchain, using algorithms, makes it very convenient and secure”.
Another topic discussed during the webcast was the GDPR compliance for blockchain. GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) was created before blockchain therefore it doesn’t account for decentralized technologies. Generally speaking, it all comes down to how the technology is used and what kind of data is incorporated in it. Timestamping data without invading anyone’s privacy, or timestamp of consented data, should determine no issue at all. This is what privacy by design stands for, taking human values into account in a well-defined manner throughout the whole process.
Block.co, powered by the University of Nicosia, is establishing itself as a global leader in the issuance of digital immutable and secure certificates timestamped on the Bitcoin blockchain. In the field of healthcare, it could include medical records, prescription issuance, insurance disputes, supply chain documentation, and any type of verifiable certificate that requires authenticity at its core.
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Bitcoin’s Security and Hash Rate Explained

Bitcoin’s Security and Hash Rate Explained
As the Bitcoin hash rate reaches new all-time highs, there’s never been a better time to discuss blockchain security and its relation to the hashing power and the Proof of Work (PoW) that feed the network. The Bitcoin system is based on a form of decentralized trust, heavily relying on cryptography. This makes its blockchain highly secure and able to be used for financial transactions and other operations requiring a trustless ledger.
Far from popular belief, cryptography dates back to thousands of years ago. The same root of the word encryption — crypt — comes from the Greek word ‘kryptos’, meaning hidden or secret. Indeed, humans have always wanted to keep some information private. The Assyrians, the Chinese, the Romans, and the Greeks, they all tried over the centuries to conceal some information like trade deals or manufacturing secrets by using symbols or ciphers carved in stone or leather. In 1900 BC, Egyptians used hieroglyphics and experts often refer to them as the first example of cryptography.
Back to our days, Bitcoin uses cryptographic technologies such as:
  1. Cryptographic hash functions (i.e. SHA-256 and RIPEMD-160)
  2. Public Key Cryptography (i.e. ECDSA — the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm)
While Public Key Cryptography, bitcoin addresses, and digital signatures are used to provide ownership of bitcoins, the SHA-256 hash function is used to verify data and block integrity and to establish the chronological order of the blockchain. A cryptographic hash function is a mathematical function that verifies the integrity of data by transforming it into a unique unidentifiable code.
Here is a graphic example to make things more clear:

– Extract from the MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) in Digital Currencies at the University of Nicosia.
Furthermore, hash functions are used as part of the PoW algorithm, which is a prominent part of the Bitcoin mining algorithm and this is what is of more interest to understand the security of the network. Mining creates new bitcoins in each block, almost like a central bank printing new money and creates trust by ensuring that transactions are confirmed only when enough computational power is devoted to the block that contains them. More blocks mean more computation, which means more trust.
With PoW, miners compete against each other to complete transactions on the network and get rewarded. Basically they need to solve a complicated mathematical puzzle and a possibility to easily prove the solution. The more hashing power, the higher the chance to resolve the puzzle and therefore perform the proof of work. In more simple words, bitcoins exist thanks to a peer to peer network that helps validate transactions in the ledger and provides enough trust to avoid that a third party is involved in the process. It also exists because miners give it life by resolving that computational puzzle, through the mining reward incentive they are receiving.
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Parallels between two disruptive technologies: Internet & Blockchain – Part I

Parallels between two disruptive technologies: Internet & Blockchain – Part I
[The original article appeared on: https://block.co/blog/]
The emergence of disruptive technologies is always complemented by the creation and development of new models, mostly resulting in new economic concepts and business structures. The rise of the internet over 30 years ago, laid the foundation for the creation of new markets, for instance, that book store that sells all publications from around the world — Amazon. Or new concepts like the ‘Instant gratification’ that contributed to the introduction of business models like Netflix, finally allowing consumers to get instant access to films and series.
Blockchain is bound to create new models in all fields that regulate our lives, from a financial perspective to the regulation of infrastructures facilitating interactions and transactions in a way that would not be possible without the internet. This is one of the reasons why it is often referred to as the next generation of the internet or Web3, where WWW revolutionized information, Web2 facilitated interactions and now Web3 has the potential to innovate agreement and value exchange structures using the internet in a decentralized manner.
From a technological perspective, the similarities between the two are impressive.
We are currently believed to be in what were the early stages of the internet, with similar challenges around scalability, costs, and education, limiting the development of breakthrough applications and mass adoption. These internet challenges were resolved over time, therefore we should expect a similar progression in Blockchain.

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In 1996, major internet service AOL could not manage a high volume of Internet users and went down for nineteen hours. Gradually the average internet speed in the US went from 50Kbps in 1999 to 18.7Mbps of 2017. Similarly, in 2017 the Ethereum blockchain failed to sustain the spike of on-chain transactions caused by the famous blockchain game CryptoKitties and the platform suffered the most serious network clog to date. These failures are necessary to the development of technology. Just like it was clear in 1996 that the internet had to face a scalability issue, it’s been evident for years now that blockchain also has to find ways to deal with the problem. Developers, programmers, experts, and academics are all working on the improvement of the system but there won’t be a definite solution, just like there wasn’t for the internet.
As popular Bitcoin expert and educator Andreas Antonopoulos mentioned in his book The Internet of Money, “Scale is not a goal to achieve; it is a definition of what you can do with the network today.” Scalability was built on the internet based on layers on top of the basic protocol and it looks like this will be the possible progression for the blockchain too. The Lightning Network, layer2 or off-chain protocol, is paving the way for Bitcoin fast and small payments along with a major focus on providing full privacy to transactions. Many believe in this respect we are still in 1994 Internet time, when the TCP/IP, HTML, and FTP were invented, leading to the successful business models represented by Facebook, Airbnb and Uber later. In the blockchain, breakthrough Dapps have yet to appear and will emerge in the coming years.
User Interface will help drive adoption in the same ways it helped the internet. At the time of the Arpanet, the technical foundation of the internet, the system was difficult to use for both nontechnical and technical people. The search functionality relied on an IP address and navigating the internet meant inserting a long string of numbers in order to find what you were looking for. It was easy to get confused, mistype numbers, etc. When the switch between the IP address and the URL happened, it became easier to navigate the web thanks to a more efficient and user-friendly experience overall.
Blockchain usage and benefit are still clunky. We still need a 12 or 24-word phrase to access a private cryptocurrency wallet and send a transaction to a long string of numbers (just like it happened with the early internet addresses) to validate it. All of this will disappear once user interfaces will be given the right attention and mass adoption will likely benefit from a system easier to use. It is clear that in the blockchain development more focus has been given so far to make the technology more secure, reliable, and robust at the expense of the user experience. Once the strength of the network/system is secured there will be a shift of interest in developing the interface with a resulting better user-friendly experience. Maybe it’s the right evolution and one that will bring a stronger technology structure overall.
Adoption is another important parallel we can highlight, not only with the Internet but with all the disruptive technologies previous to the World Wide Web. It took 46 years for electricity, 35 years for telephone, 14 years for TV, and 7 years for the Web to reach 25% of global market penetration. We can expect a similar growth trajectory to happen in the cryptocurrency/blockchain space, perhaps at a faster rate since the world is more connected now, thanks to the already existing internet interactions.
Stay tuned because in part two of this blog we will explore the parallels between the technologies in education, capitals, and start-ups and the decentralization of the blockchain as the main aspect that will revolutionize the Internet as well.
In the meantime, blockchain as a distributed ledger for a secure network of transactions is finding wide adoption as is the case for academic and ID credentials embraced by The University of Nicosia and Block.co. The University of Nicosia and Block.co can help provide the necessary technical expertise to follow the whole process from creation to publication on the blockchain where the document will be safely stored for life and where it can be independently verified by any third party. They were the first ones to do it globally as early as 2014.
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Significant people of The Crypto World

Significant people of The Crypto World
The cryptocurrency and blockchain spheres are less than 10 years old, but in this industry, thanks to the incredible speed of change, there are already “people-legends” that nobody knew about yesterday, and tomorrow the whole world will speak.In this article, we will continue our acquaintance with crypto geniuses, which would eventually become more and more.So who are the great minds of the virtual world?

Brock Pierce — from gamer to millionaire

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Brock Pierce met cryptocurrencies through entertainment. In the 2000s, Pierce, being an avid gamer, founded one of the largest gaming companies selling virtual assets. Involvement in virtual currencies led Pierce into the world of the blockchain at the very beginning. He was fascinated by the potential of Bitcoin, so he decided to leave the gaming industry and start looking for, founding and financing cryptocurrency companies — Mastercoin, Blockchain Capital, Coinbase, Ethereum, Tether, Bitfury and now Block.one. Brock donated $1 billion to a decentralized autonomous community, which is created on the basis of the EOS platform.

Preethi Kasireddy — An engineer with a big heart

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Meet Preethi Kasireddy — blockchain engineer and former associate of CoinBase, Goldman Sachs and Andreessen Horowitz. In 2012, Preethi graduated from the University of Southern California, gaining knowledge in the field of industrial and system engineering. Today, Preethi Kasireddy, as the founder and CEO of TruStory, is creating a company that introduces and develops blockchain technologies. In her free time, Preethi does volunteer work. For example, Preethi was actively helping to raise funds in Los Angeles to educate low-income children in India. Also, she teaches a full course “WEB development for schoolchildren”. Preethi says she lives and breathes the idea of ​​a crypto.

Roger Ver — “Bitcoin Jesus”

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Roger Ver was one of the first investors in Bitcoin startups and financially helped several projects such as Blockchain.info and BitPay.
Roger first met Bitcoin while listening to the radio program. Later, when dealing with media representatives, Roger Ver said that he had not left his house for more than 7 days after that and was looking for any available information about this cryptocurrency. At that moment Roger realized that this virtual currency is the best form of financial resources that ever existed in the world. The desire to gain knowledge about Bitcoin led to a lack of sleep, because of which Roger Ver’s friend had to take the young entrepreneur to the hospital.
The entrepreneur has invested his own funds in a huge number of different projects related to Bitcoin virtual currency, including Blockchain.info, BitPay, Ripple and many others. Roger Ver’s total financial investment was approximately $1 million.
Communicating with media representatives, Roger Ver said that Bitcoin will meet many obstacles on its path, but it will be able to improve the quality of all people’s lives in the world. He also added that he does not care enough about short-term changes in the rate of this virtual currency.

Andreas Antonopoulos — Bitcoin Guru

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Andreas Antonopoulos is one of the world’s most famous Bitcoin and blockchain experts. He is a very popular speaker and he is interested not only in the investment side of technology, but also in the educational, political, cultural and human components.
In 2014, Andreas was invited to the post of lecturer at the University of Nicosia, the first university in the world, where people can receive a master’s degree in digital currencies. Today Antonopoulos works in the Committee for Supervision of Bitcoin on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.Today Antonopoulos works the Oversight Committee for the Bitcoin Reference Rate at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
Andreas has published many famous bestsellers about cryptocurrency. In particular, in 2014, Antonopoulos wrote the book “Mastering Bitcoin”.
Andreas emphasizes that he is not very interested in the spread of Bitcoin in developed Western countries. He is more fascinated by the idea that you can use Bitcoin in Kenya, Lagos or Nigeria with an old Nokia, and people who have never had access to banking services will be able to join the global economy this way.

Winklevoss brothers — the first Bitcoin billionaires

https://preview.redd.it/angh5onbwrl31.jpg?width=1140&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=de90beb0a064f66c5ce5381529869624a8a163d9
The first in the world billionaires who earned a fortune on Bitcoins were American twin brothers Cameron and Taylor Winklevoss. The state of the brothers is estimated at 100 thousand Bitcoins, which is equivalent to 1.17 billion dollars.
Well-known entrepreneurs and Bitcoin-enthusiasts, the Winklevoss brothers build two Bitcoin companies and own 1% of all Bitcoins already mined. As said Tyler Winklevoss, “We eat, sleep, breathe Bitcoin.”
Winklevoss deliberately do not sell cryptocurrency, indicating the long-term investment. Bitcoin they call the “improved version of gold”.

There are many amazing people in the Crypto World and we will keep telling you about the most vivid and interesting ones. Some have distinguished themselves by contributing to the development of the industry, others have managed to make good money and promote blockchain technology. Without these people, we would never know about such great innovations as blockchain and cryptocurrency, which is the future of our world.


Feel free to follow our updates and news on Twitter, Facebook, Telegram and BitcoinTalk.
Read what the customers say about SimpleSwap on Trustpilot.
Don’t hesitate to contact us with any questions you may have via [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by SimpleSwapExchange to Cryptocurrency_Daily [link] [comments]

Significant people of The Crypto World

Significant people of The Crypto World
The cryptocurrency and blockchain spheres are less than 10 years old, but in this industry, thanks to the incredible speed of change, there are already “people-legends” that nobody knew about yesterday, and tomorrow the whole world will speak.
In this article, we will continue our acquaintance with crypto geniuses, which would eventually become more and more.
So who are the great minds of the virtual world?

Brock Pierce — from gamer to millionaire

https://preview.redd.it/cpg7ccxq1dm31.jpg?width=960&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ce5d1f4cc2ff52aea425c68056d89c3d6f9b543e
Brock Pierce met cryptocurrencies through entertainment. In the 2000s, Pierce, being an avid gamer, founded one of the largest gaming companies selling virtual assets. Involvement in virtual currencies led Pierce into the world of the blockchain at the very beginning. He was fascinated by the potential of Bitcoin, so he decided to leave the gaming industry and start looking for, founding and financing cryptocurrency companies — Mastercoin, Blockchain Capital, Coinbase, Ethereum, Tether, Bitfury and now Block. one. Brock donated $1 billion to a decentralized autonomous community, which is created on the basis of the EOS platform.

Preethi Kasireddy — An engineer with a big heart

https://preview.redd.it/84dtgmis1dm31.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6b1a450a6d689acce9c2dd5ef3690fb67923d83b
Meet Preethi Kasireddy — blockchain engineer and former associate of CoinBase, Goldman Sachs and Andreessen Horowitz. In 2012, Preethi graduated from the University of Southern California, gaining knowledge in the field of industrial and system engineering. Today, Preethi Kasireddy, as the founder and CEO of TruStory, is creating a company that introduces and develops blockchain technologies. In her free time, Preethi does volunteer work. For example, Preethi was actively helping to raise funds in Los Angeles to educate low-income children in India. Also, she teaches a full course “WEB development for schoolchildren”. Preethi says she lives and breathes the idea of ​​a crypto.

Roger Ver — “Bitcoin Jesus”

https://preview.redd.it/s3bvu81w1dm31.jpg?width=4000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=99660eb5ce334b35c948b6b21a5bdc44009f0b99
Roger Ver was one of the first investors in Bitcoin startups and financially helped several projects such as Blockchain. info and BitPay.
Roger first met Bitcoin while listening to the radio program. Later, when dealing with media representatives, Roger Ver said that he had not left his house for more than 7 days after that and was looking for any available information about this cryptocurrency. At that moment Roger realized that this virtual currency is the best form of financial resources that ever existed in the world. The desire to gain knowledge about Bitcoin led to a lack of sleep, because of which Roger Ver’s friend had to take the young entrepreneur to the hospital.
The entrepreneur has invested his own funds in a huge number of different projects related to Bitcoin virtual currency, including Blockchain. info, BitPay, Ripple and many others. Roger Ver’s total financial investment was approximately $1 million.
Communicating with media representatives, Roger Ver said that Bitcoin will meet many obstacles on its path, but it will be able to improve the quality of all people’s lives in the world. He also added that he does not care enough about short-term changes in the rate of this virtual currency.

Andreas Antonopoulos — Bitcoin Guru

https://preview.redd.it/jb2at1ey1dm31.jpg?width=722&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8eacbcfeda54dbdac4fa7159ec9c6b6b9db36a9d

Andreas Antonopoulos is one of the world’s most famous Bitcoin and blockchain experts. He is a very popular speaker and he is interested not only in the investment side of technology, but also in the educational, political, cultural and human components.
In 2014, Andreas was invited to the post of lecturer at the University of Nicosia, the first university in the world, where people can receive a master’s degree in digital currencies. Today Antonopoulos works in the Committee for Supervision of Bitcoin on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Today Antonopoulos works the Oversight Committee for the Bitcoin Reference Rate at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
Andreas has published many famous bestsellers about cryptocurrency. In particular, in 2014, Antonopoulos wrote the book “Mastering Bitcoin”.
Andreas emphasizes that he is not very interested in the spread of Bitcoin in developed Western countries. He is more fascinated by the idea that you can use Bitcoin in Kenya, Lagos or Nigeria with an old Nokia, and people who have never had access to banking services will be able to join the global economy this way.

Winklevoss brothers — the first Bitcoin billionaires

https://preview.redd.it/hqtmc7w02dm31.jpg?width=1140&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b040bc864281973444df43b19aaf843d2c08eb64
The first in the world billionaires who earned a fortune on Bitcoins were American twin brothers Cameron and Taylor Winklevoss. The state of the brothers is estimated at 100 thousand Bitcoins, which is equivalent to 1.17 billion dollars.
Well-known entrepreneurs and Bitcoin-enthusiasts, the Winklevoss brothers build two Bitcoin companies and own 1% of all Bitcoins already mined. As said Tyler Winklevoss, “We eat, sleep, breathe Bitcoin.”
Winklevoss deliberately do not sell cryptocurrency, indicating the long-term investment. Bitcoin they call the “improved version of gold”.

There are many amazing people in the Crypto World and we will keep telling you about the most vivid and interesting ones. Some have distinguished themselves by contributing to the development of the industry, others have managed to make good money and promote blockchain technology. Without these people, we would never know about such great innovations as blockchain and cryptocurrency, which is the future of our world.

Feel free to follow our updates and news on Twitter, Facebook, Telegram and BitcoinTalk. Read what the customers say about SimpleSwap on Trustpilot. Don’t hesitate to contact us with any questions you may have via [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by SimpleSwapExchange to ethtrader [link] [comments]

Regulation on Fake Credentials and the Growing Role of the Blockchain

Regulation on Fake Credentials and the Growing Role of the Blockchain
[The original article appeared on https://block.co/blog/]
Fake credential production can be traced back to the Middle Ages in France and Italy, while nowadays it is punishable by misrepresentation and anti-fraudulent laws pretty much everywhere globally, with prison sentences of up to ten years.
Although the type of crime and punishment differs from country to country, our research found that often there isn’t a specific regulation related to the submission of fake credentials and in that instance, authorities rely on existing rules linked to fraud, forgery, and misrepresentation.
In the case of institutions faking academic qualifications, a concept is known as “diploma mill” or “degree mill”, a fraudulent organization that appears as an educational institution and grants worthless degrees for a fee.
One of the most shocking examples of a reputable academic institution being involved in such illicit activity is the University of Wales, a 120-year old institution and the second largest in the country. Due to a series of fraudulent credential episodes linked to overseas partner colleges, that irreversibly ruined the reputation of the university, it had to cease to exist in 2011.
Surely, credential fraud is becoming more common and sophisticated, especially after the rise of the internet. But so are laws and regulations that are trying to crack down on such offenses.
One striking example in the bitcoin and blockchain sphere is the case of Craig Stephen Wright, who has repeatedly presented forged documents and credentials in order to appear as Satoshi Nakamoto to the world.
His case is still ongoing and it’s still unclear if, and to what extent, he will be convicted but it gives us an idea of the impact credential frauds can have on any given field.

https://preview.redd.it/hhqab1jokg451.jpg?width=800&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=702249c316c53167a541396b9b85453f6be11df3
In the USA a series of separate investigations conducted by the FBI and other United States agencies in the ’80s led to the infamous Operation Dipscam (Operation Diploma Scam) which resulted in more than 20 convictions and the closing of 39 diploma mills.
Fraudulent activity in the US dropped massively in the aftermath of the investigation. However, lack of further action by the government, dissimilar state laws, and the rise of the internet have unfortunately invalidated some of the outcomes obtained during the operations.
As laws on submission of fake credentials differ from state to state in the US, let’s look at some examples.
In North Dakota, since 2003 it is illegal to issue or produce fraudulent academic credentials and punishable with up to five years in prison and/or a fine up to $25,000.
Also, submitting fake credentials to obtain a job or admission to the education system could result in a one-year term of imprisonment and/or a $2,000 fine.
In Virginia since 2008 anyone who issues, manufactures, or knowingly uses fraudulent academic credentials can be found guilty of a crime and punishable by a maximum one-year jail sentence and fines up to $2,500.
In New Jersey, the use of a fraudulent degree is subject to a civil penalty of $1,000 for each offense.
In other countries, the state of affairs is quite diversified too, from lack of specific regulation to tough laws or jurisdictions that focus on prevention activities.
Most recently, in South Africa, President Cyril Ramaphosa has passed a law to toughen up the submission of fake credentials. Anyone presenting fraudulent academic qualifications or misleading curriculum might face up to 5 years in jail and/or unspecified fines according to the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) Amendment Act 2019. Similarly, the regulation applies to educational institutions that award fraudulent qualifications.
In the rest of the African continent, laws and regulations on the matter are more uncertain and at times nonexistent. Higher education and corruption are strictly linked to a lack of access to universities. According to UNESCO, although enrollment in higher education has grown faster in Sub-Saharan Africa than in any other region of the world, still only around 7% of the population was enrolled in 2010.
Subsequently, in order to gain admission to a degree program of choice, the bribing practice has increased in most universities in the region.
In Saudi Arabia, presenting fake credentials may result in a fine of up to €170,000 and imprisonment from one to seven years, and in the case of non-nationals deportation and a life ban from entering the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia may apply.
In the UAE the convicted shall be sentenced to up to ten years of imprisonment.
Also in Qatar authorities have started to take the issue very seriously. Dr. Khalid Al Jaber, former Editor-in-Chief of the national newspaper Peninsula, suggested that “fraudulent engineers, doctors, and accountants be publicly named and shamed.”
One of the first tough sentences in the country, saw an Indian ex-pat facing up to three years in jail for faking a degree to get a promotion at work.
Alongside new regulations, everywhere there is an increasing debate on how to prevent forgery in education and other fields.
In China, for instance, the CDGDC (China Academic Degrees and Graduate Education Development Center) has provided a free China degree verification service since July 2018. The service, other than free, is also extremely simple to use with a report that can be downloaded, printed, and cross-checked online and the electronic degree verification report issued in Chinese.
Soon there will be no need for a third-party verification; wide adoption of the blockchain will result in accurate, unforgeable, immutable, and time-stamped documents that will save time and money to governments and institutions alike.

https://preview.redd.it/dn5iqveykg451.jpg?width=800&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3db785f7b312071ac0b719ea05b8ebadcc273a8c
The University of Nicosia and Block.co can help provide the necessary technical expertise to follow the whole process from creation to publication on the blockchain where the document will be safely stored for life and where it can be independently verified by any third party. They were the first ones to do it globally as early as 2014.
For more info, contact [Block.co](mailto:Block.co) directly or email at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
Tel +357 70007828
Get the latest from Block.co, like and follow us on social media:
✔️Facebook
✔️LinkedIn
✔️Twitter
✔️YouTube
✔️Medium
✔️Instagram
✔️Telegram
✔️Reddit
✔️GitHub
submitted by BlockDotCo to u/BlockDotCo [link] [comments]

Block.Co Design Principles & Future Directions

Block.Co Design Principles & Future Directions
[The original article appeared on: https://block.co/blog/]
It is common practice for institutions in academia or in the industry to issue credentials as an attestation of someone’s achievements. They have been doing that using physical documents for centuries and lately using digital credentials (typically PDF files) are all the more common. These institutions have always faced credential fraud problems since both the physical and digital credentials can be forged relatively easily. There is no good countermeasure for that unless someone conducts expensive and time-consuming processes for the verification and even then you could not always guarantee the validity of a credential, there are actually services that provide contact phone numbers where they pretend to be the issuing institution and verify fake credentials. One side-effect of this inefficiency is that potential credential auditors (e.g. employers) would not even bother to verify the credentials.
Back in 2014, the University of Nicosia set out to solve this problem for digital credentials using blockchain technology. It came up with a novel way of fingerprinting digital documents and anchoring them into Bitcoin’s blockchain. This solution was refined over the years to lead to the platform we have today. This article will examine the design principles that shaped the development of this platform as well as future directions.

Design Principles

Issuer independence

A valid credential should not depend on the issuer institution for its validation. Anyone should be able to verify it without contacting the issuer. That means that even if the issuer no longer exists or their records are lost it would not influence the verification of an existing credential.
This “no central point of failure” aspect is one of the primary reasons that blockchain technology was leveraged by our platform. It uses the Bitcoin blockchain as the decentralized immutable ledger to store and timestamp the fingerprints of the credentials upon their issuing. Since no one will be able to tamper with the fingerprints it is easy to take a fingerprint of the digital document in the future and compare it to the one stored in the blockchain. (The process is much more efficient than comparing a single credential at a time but that is beyond the scope of this article.)

Why Bitcoin?

Nowadays, one of the questions we get a lot is why Bitcoin’s blockchain. We wanted to use the most robust and stable public blockchain. Back in 2014, there was no doubt whatsoever that Bitcoin was the one. Even now with a multitude of choices, we would still choose Bitcoin. To elaborate further we will use an example and discuss the tradeoffs. Ethereum is a popular choice for a lot of applications and we are asked about it the most, so we’ll use that.
  • The design philosophy of Bitcoin is more conservative. It tries to make non-disruptive upgrades that can take literally years to ensure extensive testing was conducted. In contrast, Ethereum’s philosophy is quick progress through experimentation to improve and evolve rapidly. For our purposes, the stability and robustness of the platform are of paramount importance to secure the credentials’ fingerprints.
  • Bitcoin’s scripting language is more restrictive and more difficult to work with. Ethereum provides a much more flexible language that makes it easy to create complex smart contracts. We have managed to create a protocol on top of Bitcoin that allows for all the functionality required while doing everything on-chain. We won’t really gain much by using smart contracts. More importantly, this flexibility and power of the Ethereum platform come at a cost; it is more complex which increases the potential attack vectors.

https://preview.redd.it/8at2tij7fg451.jpg?width=700&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c017d445f13f2f306efa6ae76d0911adf0e97fc1
  • The security, hash rate-wise, of the Bitcoin blockchain is by far higher compared to Ethereum and for any blockchain for that matter.
Also note, that we can easily anchor on Ethereum (and other blockchains) without any significant changes since we use Chainpoint for anchoring, which is blockchain agnostic. This will anchor the data similarly to Bitcoin (does not make use of smart contracts) but there is no real incentive to include it yet.

Unforgeable

It goes without saying that no one should be able to modify or tamper a digital credential. While it is trivial to get a unique fingerprint from a digital document it is quite challenging to guarantee what was the original fingerprint. However, as mentioned in the previous design decision Bitcoin’s blockchain stores and timestamps the fingerprints in a decentralized and immutable manner securing the credentials from tampering.

Simplicity

We wanted the whole process to be as simple as possible; to involve no other services or products other than (in this case) the Bitcoin blockchain. A simple solution is easier to test and validate, and again, the less dependencies the less potential attack vectors. With respect to users, we needed a format that most would be familiar with in their day to day (digital) life and thus we opted to use the PDF format. The PDF should be appropriately annotated so that it is self-contained with no external dependencies.

Why PDF?

PDF/A is an ISO-standardized format specialized for use in archiving and long-term preservation of electronic documents. It is an intuitive medium that most users are comfortable with and know how to view them. Moreover, the vast majority of the digital credentials (or any document) created are in PDF format, and most institutions that issue digital credentials issue them in PDF anyway.

Open

Following Bitcoin’s example, we wanted our solution to be open and permissionless. The core library, which includes all the functionality, is open source and anyone can use it to issue, revoke, and validate credentials. On top of that, we published our work detailing how we managed revocation in an immutable ledger (a topic for another article) as well as the platform in general, sharing with everyone exactly how our platform works so that others may benefit from that.

Solution

Our platform makes use of blockchain technology to provide an all-in-one-solution abiding by the above design principles by providing a simple, scalable and robust solution to how digital credentials can be digitized, published, revoked and independently validated. For more details on how this is achieved technically please consult this publication, the repository, and our website.

Future Directions

It is important to be open with the solution provided so that everyone can access the technology. It is also important to be able to align with others to make interoperable platforms for credentials. When we started working in digital credentials and their verification the standardization efforts where at their infancy. Some adhoc standards were used like Chainpoint which attempts to standardize how data is anchored in a blockchain. Sometimes the goals of the efforts were not aligned with ours. For example, W3C’s Verifiable Credentials and Open Badges did not have initially considered platforms that want to be decentralized like ours. Some still lack the features required (Open Badges) while others (Verifiable Credentials) later evolved to accommodate decentralized identifiers and other mechanisms required by a solution like ours.
In light of these updates, we are re-evaluating compliance with all standardization efforts that are in alignment with our design principles described in this article. We still feel that the adoption of these standards will take years to be fruitful but we will update appropriately to be compliant. We are even adding mechanisms to re-issue existing certificates with the new standards when they are mature enough to be useful.
For more info, contact [Block.co](mailto:Block.co) directly or email at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
Tel +357 70007828
Get the latest from Block.co, like and follow us on social media:
✔️Facebook
✔️LinkedIn
✔️Twitter
✔️YouTube
✔️Medium
✔️Instagram
✔️Telegram
✔️Reddit
✔️GitHub
submitted by BlockDotCo to u/BlockDotCo [link] [comments]

Significant people of The Crypto World

The cryptocurrency and blockchain spheres are less than 10 years old, but in this industry, thanks to the incredible speed of change, there are already “people-legends” that nobody knew about yesterday, and tomorrow the whole world will speak.In this article, we will continue our acquaintance with crypto geniuses, which would eventually become more and more.So who are the great minds of the virtual world?

Brock Pierce — from gamer to millionaire

https://preview.redd.it/iv2hqlopzrl31.jpg?width=960&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=af75f42cee1fb10f6ce24813f3109232a075d829
Brock Pierce met cryptocurrencies through entertainment. In the 2000s, Pierce, being an avid gamer, founded one of the largest gaming companies selling virtual assets. Involvement in virtual currencies led Pierce into the world of the blockchain at the very beginning. He was fascinated by the potential of Bitcoin, so he decided to leave the gaming industry and start looking for, founding and financing cryptocurrency companies — Mastercoin, Blockchain Capital, Coinbase, Ethereum, Tether, Bitfury and now Block.one. Brock donated $1 billion to a decentralized autonomous community, which is created on the basis of the EOS platform.

Preethi Kasireddy — An engineer with a big heart

https://preview.redd.it/2g97la2tzrl31.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6813f4b926bccd930dd11a32d4844a9f0a0aceca
Meet Preethi Kasireddy — blockchain engineer and former associate of CoinBase, Goldman Sachs and Andreessen Horowitz. In 2012, Preethi graduated from the University of Southern California, gaining knowledge in the field of industrial and system engineering. Today, Preethi Kasireddy, as the founder and CEO of TruStory, is creating a company that introduces and develops blockchain technologies. In her free time, Preethi does volunteer work. For example, Preethi was actively helping to raise funds in Los Angeles to educate low-income children in India. Also, she teaches a full course “WEB development for schoolchildren”. Preethi says she lives and breathes the idea of ​​a crypto.

Roger Ver — “Bitcoin Jesus”

https://preview.redd.it/0ompex8vzrl31.jpg?width=4000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a2140091e53728136c9c9e4672e034cb735d83ec
Roger Ver was one of the first investors in Bitcoin startups and financially helped several projects such as Blockchain.info and BitPay.
Roger first met Bitcoin while listening to the radio program. Later, when dealing with media representatives, Roger Ver said that he had not left his house for more than 7 days after that and was looking for any available information about this cryptocurrency. At that moment Roger realized that this virtual currency is the best form of financial resources that ever existed in the world. The desire to gain knowledge about Bitcoin led to a lack of sleep, because of which Roger Ver’s friend had to take the young entrepreneur to the hospital.
The entrepreneur has invested his own funds in a huge number of different projects related to Bitcoin virtual currency, including Blockchain.info, BitPay, Ripple and many others. Roger Ver’s total financial investment was approximately $1 million.
Communicating with media representatives, Roger Ver said that Bitcoin will meet many obstacles on its path, but it will be able to improve the quality of all people’s lives in the world. He also added that he does not care enough about short-term changes in the rate of this virtual currency.

Andreas Antonopoulos — Bitcoin Guru

https://preview.redd.it/djpi38yyzrl31.jpg?width=722&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b76f8a39296daf1f9fcc0892fbbba0adc72350ab
Andreas Antonopoulos is one of the world’s most famous Bitcoin and blockchain experts. He is a very popular speaker and he is interested not only in the investment side of technology, but also in the educational, political, cultural and human components.
In 2014, Andreas was invited to the post of lecturer at the University of Nicosia, the first university in the world, where people can receive a master’s degree in digital currencies. Today Antonopoulos works in the Committee for Supervision of Bitcoin on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.Today Antonopoulos works the Oversight Committee for the Bitcoin Reference Rate at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
Andreas has published many famous bestsellers about cryptocurrency. In particular, in 2014, Antonopoulos wrote the book “Mastering Bitcoin”.
Andreas emphasizes that he is not very interested in the spread of Bitcoin in developed Western countries. He is more fascinated by the idea that you can use Bitcoin in Kenya, Lagos or Nigeria with an old Nokia, and people who have never had access to banking services will be able to join the global economy this way.

Winklevoss brothers — the first Bitcoin billionaires

https://preview.redd.it/ld93kqo20sl31.jpg?width=1140&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=15874723d1c67e5166aab9a83571b4b261f67b1f
The first in the world billionaires who earned a fortune on Bitcoins were American twin brothers Cameron and Taylor Winklevoss. The state of the brothers is estimated at 100 thousand Bitcoins, which is equivalent to 1.17 billion dollars.
Well-known entrepreneurs and Bitcoin-enthusiasts, the Winklevoss brothers build two Bitcoin companies and own 1% of all Bitcoins already mined. As said Tyler Winklevoss, “We eat, sleep, breathe Bitcoin.”
Winklevoss deliberately do not sell cryptocurrency, indicating the long-term investment. Bitcoin they call the “improved version of gold”.

There are many amazing people in the Crypto World and we will keep telling you about the most vivid and interesting ones. Some have distinguished themselves by contributing to the development of the industry, others have managed to make good money and promote blockchain technology. Without these people, we would never know about such great innovations as blockchain and cryptocurrency, which is the future of our world.


Feel free to follow our updates and news on Twitter, Facebook, Telegram and BitcoinTalk. Read what the customers say about SimpleSwap on Trustpilot. Don’t hesitate to contact us with any questions you may have via [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by SimpleSwapExchange to Crypto_General [link] [comments]

MSc in Digital Currency - University of Nicosia - YouTube MSc in Digital Currency - University of Nicosia Live ... MOOC 8, Live Session 5 with Andreas Antonopoulos, Bitcoin in Practice II Socrates Minas, University of Nicosia Talks Success ... Do all bitcoins have same value?

University of Nicosia in Cyprus to be the First University in the World to Accept Bitcoin; Offers Master’s Degree in Digital Currency Largest private university in Cyprus also proposes a policy framework for developing Cyprus into a hub for Bitcoin trading, processing and banking University of Nicosia: Nimmt mit dem Kurs 'Introduction to Digital Currencies' eine Vorreiterrolle ein! BTC-ECHO. 20€ + Kryptokompass $ $ $ $ $ 344.32 B $ BTC 10,546.90 $ 2.08%. ETH 386.30 $ 5.21%. BCH 232.10 $ 3.49%. XRP 0 ... The country is already home to first brick-and-mortar “Bitcoin bank” chain and payment company, Neo & Bee, and University of Nicosia already accepts Bitcoin for tuition payments. The government, meanwhile, has made few moves to regulate virtual currency. Bitcoin prices are regularly shown on local TV news along with stock prices, and Bitcoin-based startups are appearing all over the ... The University of Nicosia made history by becoming the first educational institution to offer bitcoin tuition payment.Now, the University is offering an Introduction to Digital Currencies course, for free.. For those interested in this MOOC (Massive Open Online Course), the only real pre-requisite is that you speak English proficiently. The University of Nicosia became the first university in the world to accept Bitcoin, now it is offering an MSc program in Digital Currencies.

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MSc in Digital Currency - University of Nicosia - YouTube

Today on The Crypto Factor we interview Socrates Minas of the University of Nicosia, the first university to issue a masters degree in blockchain about his s... MSc in Digital Currency - University of Nicosia 664 views 1:01:13 MOOC 13, Session 4, Feb 13th, 2020 with Andreas Antonopoulos on: Bitcoin in Practice -Part I. - Duration: 1:05:11. MSc in Digital Currency - University of Nicosia 365 views 54:47 MOOC 9, 4th Live Session with Andreas Antonopoulos - Bitcoin in Practice Part 1 - Duration: 52:46. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Socrates Minas, tells us if you want success in blockchain, then a degree in cryptocurrency from the University of Nicosia Cyprus, will give you a MSC in Digital Currency. He talks about his work ...

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